Biochemical Markers of Liver Function in Smoking and Non-Smoking Alcohol-Dependent MalesCorrespondence Address :
Dr. AR Shivashankara,
Associate Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Father Muller Medical College, Mangaluru-575002, Karnataka, India.
Introduction: Various biochemical parameters in blood have been proposed as biomarkers of alcoholism. There is paucity of studies on alcohol biomarkers of saliva, particularly in alcoholdependent smokers.
Aim: The aim of the study was to compare and correlate the Liver Function Tests (LFT) in saliva and blood of Alcohol-dependent Smokers (AS) and Alcohol-dependent Non-Smokers (ANS).
Materials and Methods: The study included 45 AS, 38 ANS admitted to the de-addiction centre and 38 age matched healthy volunteers (C). The assay of Total Protein (TP), albumin, ?-Glutamyl transferase (GGT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in saliva and serum were analysed spectrophotometrically. Analysis of the data was performed by one-way ANOVA and Somers D correlation using SPSS version 23.0 software.
Results: History of smoking correlated significantly with salivary TP (p<0.049), AST (p=0.001) and blood GGT (p<0.001), AST (p<0.001), ALT (p=0.001). The salivary levels of GGT (p<0.001), AST (p<0.001) and ALT (p=0.001) were significantly higher in AS and ANS compared to healthy controls before withdrawal and was normalised in abstainers. The blood levels of GGT (p<0.001) and AST (p<0.001) were significantly higher in AS and ANS compared to healthy controls in both before withdrawal and abstainers. There was a significant but weak association in the study subjects between LFT and amount of alcohol. Salivary GGT, AST and ALT correlated positively with their respective blood levels in AS and ANS.
Conclusion: Significant correlation was observed between blood and saliva with respect to activities of liver function enzymes. Salivary enzymes could serve as sensitive markers of liver function in alcohol dependence.
Abstinence, Alcoholism, Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, Nicotine
JB Honnamurthy, AR Shivashankara, SS Avinash, P JohnMathai, M Malathi. BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS OF LIVER FUNCTION IN SMOKING AND NON-SMOKING ALCOHOL-DEPENDENT MALES. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research [serial online] 2018 May [cited: 2018 May 27 ]; 12:BC01-BC06. Available from
Date of Submission: Oct 05, 2017
Date of Peer Review: Nov 29, 2017
Date of Acceptance: Feb 22, 2018
Date of Publishing: May 01, 2018
FINANCIAL OR OTHER COMPETING INTERESTS: None.
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