Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Original article / research
Year : 2018 | Month : June | Volume : 12 | Issue : 6 | Page : DC10 - DC14

Molecular Diversity of Hepatitis B Virus X Gene in Central Kerala, Southern India

Ozhiparambil A Jagan, Gopi Manoj, Natamai S Jayaprakash, Ramesh M Nair, Sara Chandy

1. Lecturer, Department of Clinical Virology, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Amrita University, Kochi, Kerala, India. 2. Scientist E, Corporate R&D Centre, HLL Lifecare Limited, Trivandrum, Kerala, India. 3. Associate Professor, Centre for Bio Separation Technology (CBST), Vellore Institute of Technology University, Vellore, Kerala, India. 4. Associate Professor, Department of Gastroenterology, Pushpagiri Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Tiruvalla, Kerala, India. 5. Scientist, Department of International Clinical Epidemiology Network (INCLEN), Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Sara Chandy,
No. 42, New Tank Street, INCLEN BASIS Project Office, Nungambakkam-600034, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.


Introduction: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) causes diverse clinical manifestations ranging from acute fulminant Hepatitis, Chronic Hepatitis (CHB) to liver cirrhosis and Haepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). The HBV X gene (HBV-X) is a 154 amino acid multifunctional protein, mutates frequently and has a role in HBV related HCC.

Aim: The current study was to explore the genetic variability and identify mutations of HBV-X in CHB patients from Central Kerala, India.

Materials and Methods: The HBV-X sequences (n=39) from CHB (n=90) patients were analysed for nucleotide and amino acid diversity. Phylogenetic analyses were done using MEGA version 7.0.21 software to determine different genotypes.

Results: Basal Core Promoter (BCP) mutations: A1762T/G1764A (n=5) were found in HBeAg negative subjects (n=3, 60%). Bioinformatic analysis showed that the substitutions and mutations were HBV genotype/subgenotype specific. The predominant genotype detected was A1 (n=52, 57.77%) followed by genotype D (n=27, 30.00%). Nucleotide and amino acid diversities were more in genotype A1 than in D, which is responsible for transactivation (p<0.0001), those infected with this genotype may be at high risk for HCC.

Conclusion: Genotype A1 isolates displayed most mutations/substitutions in HBV-X, Further studies are necessary to understand its role in contributing to the development of HCC. The study represents the first formal investigation of HBV-X genetic variability in Kerala.


Basal core promoter, Chronic Hepatitis B, Genotypes, Hepatocellular carcinoma, X gene mutation

How to cite this article :

Ozhiparambil A Jagan, Gopi Manoj, Natamai S Jayaprakash, Ramesh M Nair, Sara Chandy. MOLECULAR DIVERSITY OF HEPATITIS B VIRUS X GENE IN CENTRAL KERALA, SOUTHERN INDIA. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research [serial online] 2018 June [cited: 2018 Jun 24 ]; 12:DC10-DC14. Available from

DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2018/33935.11572

Date of Submission: Sep 26, 2017
Date of Peer Review: Nov 22, 2017
Date of Acceptance: Feb 22, 2018
Date of Publishing: Jun 01, 2018


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