Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Original article / research
Year : 2018 | Month : July | Volume : 12 | Issue : 7 | Page : EC06 - EC09

Role of Synovial Fluid Examination in Diagnosis of Joint Diseases

Praveen Garg, Vibhuti Goyal

1. Assistant Professor, Department of Orthopaedics, Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospitals, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India. 2. Assistant Professor, Department of Pathology, Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospitals, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Vibhuti Goyal,
E-22, Faculty Residence, Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospitals, Bareilly-243006, Uttar Pradesh, India.
E-mail :


Introduction: Joint effusion is a common clinical problem resulting from various inflammatory and non-inflammatory conditions. Synovial fluid analysis is one of the most important diagnostic tests to classify the type of effusion.

Aim: To assess the role of synovial fluid analysis in the diagnosis of joint diseases and also to assess the pattern of arthritis in tertiary care centre.

Materials and Methods: A total of 100 samples of synovial fluid were examined. Synovial fluids were subjected to gross examination for colour, viscosity, appearance, wet mount preparation, total and differential leukocyte count, microbiologic assays and crystal analysis by polarised microscopy.

Results: Out of 100 samples analysed, Effusion was non-inflammatory in 32 (32%) cases, inflammatory in 46 (46%) cases, infective in 10 (10%) cases, traumatic in 3 (3%) cases, crystal induced in 3 (3%) cases, normal in 4 (4%) cases and non-diagnostic in 2 (2%) cases. The majority of cases were of osteoarthritis 22 (22%), then rheumatoid arthritis 16 (16%), tuberculous arthritis in 6 (6%) cases, septic arthritis in 4 (4%) cases, gout in 3 (3%) cases and traumatic arthritis in 3 (3%) cases. 10 (10%) cases were of non-inflammatory arthritis-not otherwise specified and 30 (30%) cases were of inflammatory arthritis-not otherwise specified. A total of 4 (4%) cases were normal and 2 (2%) cases were non-diagnostic. Total leukocyte count was found to be highest in septic arthtritis (60,000-78,000 cells/mm3) and lowest in osteoarthritis (120-23,00 cells/mm3). Polymorphs were highest in septic arthtritis (95%) and lowest in non-inflammatory conditions like osteoarthritis (23%). Sensitivity and specificity for gross examination to differentiate between inflammatory and non-inflammatory conditions was 0.91 and 0.70 respectively while it was 0.94 and 0.86 respectively for white blood cell count.

Conclusion:Synovial fluid analysis is a simple procedure. The study of synovial fluid is a tool that allows the establishment of diagnosis and treatment of patient with joint diseases. Gross examination, total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte count accomplish well to differentiate between various inflammatory and non-inflammatory arthritis and also to diagnose septic arthritis.


Gross examination, Polymorphonuclear cells, White blood cell count

How to cite this article :

Praveen Garg, Vibhuti Goyal. ROLE OF SYNOVIAL FLUID EXAMINATION IN DIAGNOSIS OF JOINT DISEASES. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research [serial online] 2018 July [cited: 2018 Jul 17 ]; 12:EC06-EC09. Available from

DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2018/31333.11790

Date of Submission: Jul 11, 2017
Date of Peer Review: Aug 24, 2017
Date of Acceptance: Apr 13, 2018
Date of Publishing: Jul 01, 2018


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