Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Original article / research
Year : 2017 | Month : March | Volume : 11 | Issue : 3 | Page : LC05 - LC10

A Community Based Study on Pelvic Inflammatory Disease in Postmenopausal Females: Microbiological Spectrum and Socio- Demographic Correlates

Samreen Khan, M Athar Ansari, Shaista M Vasenwala, Zehra Mohsin

1. Assistant Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Teerthankar Mahaveer Medical College and Research Centre, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India. 2. Professor, Department of Community Medicine, JN Medical College, AMU, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. 3. Professor, Department of Pathology, JN Medical College, AMU, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. 4. Associate Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, JN Medical College, AMU, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Samreen Khan,
Room No. 217E, Faculty Guest House, Teerthankar Mahaveer University, Moradabad-244001, Uttar Pradesh, India.


Introduction: Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) is a common and serious complication of sexually transmitted diseases in young women but is rarely diagnosed in the postmenopausal women. Very few studies have been done regarding postmenopausal PID.

Aim: To determine the burden of PID, associated micro-organisms, pathophysiology and risk factors among post-menopausal women of the community.

Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 530 post-menopausal women in the registered field practice areas of the JN Medical College and Hospital, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. A pre designed and pre tested proforma was used to obtain data regarding socio-demographic details and factors associated with PID. Clinical and laboratory examinations were done to confirm the diagnosis of PID. Data was analyzed using SPSS 23.0. Association between categorical variables was tested with chi-square test and logistic regression analysis was used to find independent risk factors. The value of p<0.05 was considered as significant.

Results: About 11.55% of the study subjects were diagnosed with PID (12.5% in rural areas and 10.6% in urban areas). Bacterial vaginosis followed by Trichomonas vaginalis were most common. Among the important risk factors, significant association was found with occupation of the women, increasing parity, multiple sexual contacts, and associated pelvic organ prolapse. Association with smoking, chronic illnesses, diabetes mellitus and hypertension, and associated urinary tract infection were not found to be significant.

Conclusion: The study shows the hidden burden of the disease in the community and the associated risk factors, which can be prevented by life style and cultural changes if incorporated earlier in the lives.


Cervico-vaginal flora, Gynaecological morbidity, Postmenopausal women

How to cite this article :

Samreen Khan, M Athar Ansari, Shaista M Vasenwala, Zehra Mohsin. A COMMUNITY BASED STUDY ON PELVIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASE IN POSTMENOPAUSAL FEMALES: MICROBIOLOGICAL SPECTRUM AND SOCIO- DEMOGRAPHIC CORRELATES. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research [serial online] 2017 March [cited: 2017 May 25 ]; 11:LC05-LC10. Available from

DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2017/24559.9433

Date of Submission: Oct 03, 2016
Date of Peer Review: Nov 09, 2016
Date of Acceptance: Jan 13, 2017
Date of Publishing: Mar 01, 2017


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