Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Year : 2017 | Month : September | Volume : 11 | Issue : 9 | Page : QE01 - QE05

Minerals in Pregnancy and Lactation: A Review Article

Samira Khayat, Hamed Fanaei, Abdolhakim Ghanbarzehi

1. Ph.D. Student in Reproductive Health, Department of Midwifery and Reproductive Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. 2. Pregnancy Health Research Center and Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran. 3. Department of Physiology, Iranshahr University of Medical Sciences, Iranshahr, Iran.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Hamed Fanaei,
Pregnancy Health Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.


Micronutrients (include vitamins and minerals) are essential for normal function, growth and development. Minerals have important effects on the health of the mother and foetus. But biological mechanisms of minerals are not completely understood. Micronutrient deficiency during pregnancy can lead to anaemia, hypertension, obstetric complications and even maternal death and in foetus lead to a fail in growth and development. Mineral deficiency during pregnancy, particularly exist in developing countries. During pregnancy due to the increased demands caused by physiological changes, deficiency is exaggerated and as a result its complications occur. Thus, ensuring to receive enough macronutrients and micronutrients before and during pregnancy, is important. Nevertheless, there are controversies regarding administrating supplements. There are not enough studies about some of the minerals and the challenges remain. Regarding the importance of minerals in pregnancy and lactation, in this review we will analyze the role of them in pregnancy and lactation.


Breast feeding, Lactation, Micronutrients, Minerals, Pregnancy

How to cite this article :

Samira Khayat, Hamed Fanaei, Abdolhakim Ghanbarzehi. MINERALS IN PREGNANCY AND LACTATION: A REVIEW ARTICLE. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research [serial online] 2017 September [cited: 2018 Jan 18 ]; 11:QE01-QE05. Available from

DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2017/28485.10626

Date of Submission: Mar 19, 2017
Date of Peer Review: May 08, 2017
Date of Acceptance: Jul 31, 2017
Date of Publishing: Sep 01, 2017


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