Prevalence, Characterisation and Diagnosis of Common Connective Tissue Diseases from Coimbatore Region in Tamil Nadu OC21-OC24
Dr. Jacinth Angel,
No. 3, 6th Cross, 5th Main Road, Srinivasa Nagar, Puthur, Tiruchirappalli-620117, Tamil Nadu, India.
Introduction: Systemic autoimmune diseases include condi tions where the immune system fails to recognise self antigens leading to production of “auto antibodies” and subsequent damage to several organs and tissue systems. It is commonly observed worldwide, that Connective Tissue Diseases (CTDs) occur predominantly among women in childbearing age groups. The most common laboratory diagnosis done is to detect Antinuclear Antibodies (ANAs) by ELISA. Indirect Fluorescence Antibody (IFA) and ANA profile analysis are newer and slowly progressing concepts. The fewer existing studies available show that, IFA test in conjunction with ANA ELISA can provide more conclusive diagnosis. Not much data is available on the detailed diagnostic aspects of CTDs involving ELISA, IFA and ANA profile together as diagnostic tools.
Aim: To analyse the common CTDs in Coimbatore region in Tamil Nadu and to determine the classical clinical and diagnostic features of the common CTDs.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among 442 patients who attended PSG Hospitals, Coimbatore. ANAs were tested in patients clinically suspected to have connective tissue disease using ANA ELISA and ANAIFA (Indirect Fluorescent Antibody). ANA profile was done on selected cases as final confirmatory test. Clinical details of patients were obtained from medical records.
Results: A total of 193 (44%) patients had CTDs. Females constituted to about 88% and 53% of the patients were between the age group of 2140 years. The three most commonly occurring CTDs were Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), Mixed Connective Tissue Disease (MCTD) and Scleroderma or Systemic Sclerosis (SS).
Conclusion: CTDs are common in our community. Females are commonly affected. IFA was a useful diagnostic tool and ANA profile was a valuable confirmatory test. SLE was the most common CTD.