Virulence Factors Detection in Aspergillus Isolates from Clinical and Environmental Samples DC13-DC18
Dr. Gurjeet Singh,
H.No.-799, Sardar Gali No.1, Avadh Nagar, Navapur Road, Boisar, Palghar, Thane-401501, Maharashtra, India.
Introduction: Pathogenesis of aspergillosis is dependent on various factors of the host (immune status) and virulence factors of the pathogen which could play a significant role in the pathogenesis of invasive aspergillosis.
Aim: To study the virulence factors of Aspergillus species isolated from patient samples and environmental samples.
Materials and Methods: This prospective and experimental study was carried out at Department of Microbiology, MGM Medical College and Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, from July 2014 to June 2015. For detection of virulence factors of Aspergillus species, total 750 samples were included in this study (350 from patients and 400 samples from environment). Patient samples and hospital environment samples were subjected to standard methods for screening of Biofilm, Lipase, a–amylase, proteinase, haemolysin, phospholipase and pectinase. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test and SPSS (Version 17.0).
Results: American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) control of Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus brasiliensis showed production of all virulence factors. In patient samples maximum virulence factor was produced i.e., a-amylase activity (89.74%) followed by proteinase activity (87.17%), biofilm production was (82.05%) haemolysin activity (79.48%), lipase activity (66.66%), pectinase activity and phospholipase activity (61.53%). In environment samples maximum virulence factor was produced i.e., proteinase activity (41.02%) followed by biofilm production was (38.46%), a-amylase activity (35.89%), haemolysin activity (33.33%), lipase activity (28.20%), phospholipase (25.64%) and pectinase activity (23.07%). The differences in patient and environment virulence factors were statistically significant (p-value <0.05).
Conclusion: Overall the presence of virulence factors was found more in Aspergillus species isolated from patient samples then environmental samples. This could be due to invasiveness nature of Aspergilli. Aspergillus niger was common isolates from both patient and environmental samples. Our study highlights the possible transmission of Aspergilli from environment to patient. Detection of virulence factors of Aspergillus species help to differentiate between pathogenic and non-pathogenic Aspergilli. Presence of virulence factors confirmed pathogenicity of the isolates. It also helps the physicians to treat the patient when appropriate treatment is needed.