Surfactant Therapy for Early Onset Pneumonia in Late Preterm and Term Neonates Needing Mechanical Ventilation SC09-SC12
Dr. Pradeep Suryawanshi,
Professor and Head, Department of Neonatology, Bharati Vidyapeeth University Medical College and Hospital,
Dhankawadi, Pune-411043, Maharashtra, India.
Introduction: Pathophysiology of pneumonia involves leakage of plasma proteins into the airways and accumulation of cytokines within the lung. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that this proteinaceous material and lung inflammation inhibit surfactant function.
Aim: To evaluate whether exogenous surfactant therapy improves oxygenation and gas exchange in late preterm and term neonates with early onset pneumonia and respiratory failure.
Materials and Methods: This prospective interventional cohort study was conducted at a tertiary care neonatal unit. Twenty four late preterm and term neonates with early onset pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure were included and received surfactant therapy. Oxygenation index, arterial/alveolar PO2 (a/A ratio), mean airway pressure and fraction of inspired oxygen were calculated from arterial blood gases obtained before and after surfactant therapy. Wilcoxon signed rank sum test was used for assessment of change in oxygenation variables 12 hours after surfactant therapy. Data regarding clinical outcomes and complications were collected and analysed.
Results: Just over half (54.2%) of the study neonates were of term gestation. After surfactant therapy, the median Oxygenation Index (OI) decreased from 11.15 to 3.7 at one hour and the change was sustained and significant at 12 hours (p<0.05). The median a/A PO2 ratio improved from 0.09 to 0.3 within one hour of surfactant replacement and the improvement was significant at 12 hours (p<0.01). Twenty two neonates (92%) survived to discharge. Median duration of hospital stay was 15 days.
Conclusion: Significant and rapid improvement in oxygenation in late preterm and term neonates with early onset pneumonia was seen after surfactant therapy, which is sustained for a longer period. There could be a substantial role for the use of surfactant in early onset pneumonia, although larger controlled trials are needed before definite recommendations can be made.