Diagnostic Performance of Serum Human Epididymis Protein 4 in Endometrial Carcinoma: A Pilot Study XC01-XC05
Dr. Abhinav Dewan,
115, C-13, Sector-3, Rohini-110085, Delhi, India.
Introduction: Endometrial Cancer (EC) is a common female malignant disorder. To date, there are no specific tumor markers for EC that may be routinely used in clinical practice for diagnosis.
Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the serum Human Epididymis protein 4 (HE4) as biomarker for EC and to determine its association with clinicopathological variables.
Materials and Methods: The study population included 60 postmenopausal women with a diagnosis of EC and 60 healthy postmenopausal female subjects (control group). Concentrations of serum HE4 and CA-125 in EC patients and control group were determined using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA). The value of serum HE4 and CA-125 for the diagnosis and prediction of stage, histology, myometrial invasion and lymph nodal metastasis was analysed.
Results: The mean serum HE4 and CA-125 levels were significantly higher in patients with EC than those with control group (p<0.05). Comparison for HE4 and CA-125 between different stages showed a statistically significant difference. Stage I EC patients with <50% myometrial invasion had a significantly lower mean serum HE4 value than patients with >50% myometrial invasion (p=0.007). Corresponding values of CA-125 showed a similar trend (p=0.023). There were significantly higher levels of HE4 and CA-125 in cases with lymph node involvement. The levels of serum HE4 and CA-125 were higher in the non-endometroid histology, but the difference was not statistically significant. The Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve analysis for EC and control group showed that HE4 had greater Area Under Curve (AUC) when compared with CA-125. Using ROC curve, a serum HE4 concentration of 69.8 pmol/l (AUC 0.974) and/or serum CA-125 level of 34.50 U/mL (AUC 0.714) was used to predict malignancy. Sensitivity of combined biomarkers showed no additional improvement in comparison to HE4 or CA-125 alone.
Conclusion: Our results show that HE4 is a sensitive diagnostic serum marker for detection of EC patients, exhibiting a better diagnostic performance compared to CA-125. Good performance of HE4 in diagnosis of early stages EC indicates its usefulness as a prognostic marker and also to monitor therapy and detect early recurrence.