Microperimetry – A New Tool for Assessing Retinal Sensitivity in Macular Diseases NC08-NC11
Dr. Krishnagopal Srikanth,
Professor and Head, Department of Ophthalmology,
Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute (Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth University), Puducherry-607403, India.
Introduction: Macular disease is the leading cause of low vision in the Western world. Drusen and pigmentary irregularities are common among the rural Northern Indian population. The disease process leads to loss of central vision, metamorphopsia, macropsia or micropsia and colour vision defect.
Aim: To study the retinal sensitivity changes in macular diseases using microperimetry.
Materials and Methods: It was an observational study, conducted in the Department of Ophthalmology at a rural tertiary care hospital. This study was started from December 2014 until June 2016, in all patients with macular disease above the age of 20 years attending the outpatient department. Microperimetry was done for 84 eyes of 52 patients with macular disease. Mean retinal Sensitivity (MS) and fixation stability was evaluated. The statistical analysis of mean retinal sensitivity, central 2° and 4° fixation was done by calculating the mean and standard deviation using 95% confidence interval.
Results: The range of age was between 20-81 years. Majority were 32 males (62%) and 20 females (38%). Out of the 84 eyes studied, majority of the macular disease were Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) (50%). Rest 50% were other macular diseases. The mean retinal sensitivity (dB) shown by microperimetry was 10.83 in AMD, 9.12 in Cystoid Macular Oedema (CME), 10.34 in Epiretinal Membrane (ERM), 10.74 in Pigment Epithelial Detachment (PED), 8.96 in Central Serous Chorioretinopathy (CSCR), 6.43 in macular dystrophy, 7.15 in Lamellar Hole (LMH), 9.8 in Pseudomacular Hole (PMH), 3 in geographic atrophy, 11.1 in macular telangiectasia, 5.6 in Berlin oedema, 12.3 in macular scar and 15.2 in haemorrhage in macula. The study showed 64% of the eyes had stable 2° central fixation, 35% had relatively unstable fixation and 1% had unstable fixation. No significant correlation between retinal sensitivity and retinal thickness in AMD was found.
Conclusion: This study shows that microperimetry can be a useful tool for objective evaluation of macular function and progression of the disease.