Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy and its Associated Factors in a Rural Area of Villupuram District of Tamil Nadu, India LC23-LC26
Dr. Ganesh Kumar Saya,
Additional Professor, Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, JIPMER, Puducherry-06, India.
Introduction: There is limited information on prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) among diabetic subjects and its associated factors in a rural setting in developing countries including India. The information will be useful for initiating early screening strategies for this group in the community.
Aim: To assess the prevalence and certain associated factors of DR among diabetic subjects in a rural area of Tamil Nadu, India.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 105 Type 2 diabetic subjects in Pakkam and Mandagapattu sub-center area of Kondur Primary Health Center in Villupuram district of Tamil Nadu, India. Data on associated factors which include sociodemographic factors, duration of disease, family history, and frequency of blood test, treatment regularity, hypertension, visual acuity and cataract were collected. Detailed eye examination including visual acuity, direct ophthalmoscope and Non Mydriatic Fundus Camera was done. Data was analysed by univariate analysis and described in proportion or percentages.
Results: The mean age of the study population was 56.69 years. About 47 (44.8%) of the subjects were more than 60 years of age followed by 44 subjects (41.9%) in age group 45-59 years. Fundus examination in at least one eye was seen in 83 people (79.0%). Prevalence of DR in any eye and both the eye was 32.53% (27/83) and 31.58% (24/76) respectively. Severity of DR was moderate (51.9%) followed by mild (44.4%) and severe (3.7%). DR prevalence was more among >60 years age group (p=0.032) and lesser education level (p=0.057). There was no association of DR with duration of disease, family history of diabetes, treatment regularity, presence of hypertension, visual acuity and cataract (p>0.05)
Conclusion: The prevalence of DR was inferred to be high and further larger follow up studies will explore the role of associated factors and its quantification in the causation of DR.