Effect of Pranayama on Ppar-γ, Nf-κB Expressions and Red Complex Microorganisms in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis – A Clinical Trial ZC82-ZC86
Dr. Jaideep Mahendra,
Department of Periodontics, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College and Hospital, Chennai-600095, Tamil Nadu, India.
Introduction: Sudarshankriya pranayama is the control of breathing movements to regulate the energy flow throughout the body, which has shown to positively affect immune function, autonomic nervous system and psychologic-neuro pathways. The practice of pranayama has been proven to show several benefits such as reduction in stress levels, relieves anxiety and depression, increase in antioxidant levels, reduces insulin resistance and improves respiratory function.
Aim: The objective of the study was to evaluate the levels of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPAR-ϒ), Nuclear Factor-Kappa B (NF-κB) and the presence of Red Complex Microorganisms (RCM) such as Treponema denticola, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia in the subgingivalpl aque samples of chronic periodontitis subjects before and after intervention with pranayama as an adjunct to Scaling and Root Planing (SRP).
Materials and Methods: A total of 30 subjects (control group) were treated with SRP and 30 subjects (pranayama group) underwent SRP and pranayama for three months. Probing Pocket Depth (PPD), Clinical Attachment Level (CAL), Bleeding Index (BI) and Plaque Index (PI) were recorded and the presence of PPAR-γ, NF-κ B and RCM were assessed at baseline and after three months using polymerase chain reaction. ANCOVA test was done to compare the clinical parameters between the groups. Fishers Exact test was done to identify RCM and Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon-signed test was used to identify the expression of NF-κB and PPAR-γ in the plaque samples.
Results: The change in the mean CAL from baseline to third month was significantly higher in pranayama group compared to control group (p=0.05). There was a statistically significant reduction in the expression of NF-κB and increase in PPAR-γ expression levels in pranayama group on comparison with the control group (p<0.001). The reduction in number of positive samples with T.denticola, P.gingivalis and T.forsythia at third month post-intervention did not affect the change in the expression levels of NF-κB and PPAR-γ.
Conclusion: The CAL showed significant improvement with reduction in the RCM, NF-κB and increase in PPAR-γ levels in subjects who underwent pranayama as an adjunct to SRP. In future, pranayama can be used as an additional treatment modality to provide a new dimension in treatment of periodontitis.