The Serological Evidence of Cytomegalovirus Infection as a Potent Aetiological Factor for Cleft Lip/Palate, Mental Retardation and Deafness ZC51-ZC54
Dr. Madu Ghana Shyam Prasad,
Professor and Head, Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, St. Joseph Dental College,
Eluru-534003, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Introduction: Congenital Cytomegalovirus (CCMV) infection is estimated to occur in 0.5% to 2% of all deliveries across the world. According to the available literature about Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infected children, 0.5% to 1% acquire Cytomegalovirus (CMV) in utero, 40% acquire the infection within the first decade of life, between 15% to 70% acquire CMV infection in group day care settings and continue to shed the virus for 6 to 48 months after primary infection. Although, 90% of the infected infants are clinically asymptomatic at birth, shreds of evidence show that these infants are at risk for audiological, neurological, and developmental sequelae. Despite this, HCMV still remains undetected due to silent or asymptomatic nature of the virus.
Aim: The present study was aimed to test the hypothesis that HCMV can be a potential aetiologic factor in the development of cleft lip/palate, mental retardation and deafness.
Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in a controlled setting under strict aseptic conditions. Blood samples were collected from 80 children, who were selected strictly adhering to the inclusion criteria and were divided into four groups containing 20 children each. Group 1: 20 children with cleft lip/palate, Group 2: 20 mentally retarded children, Group 3: 20 completely deaf children and Group 4: 20 normal Children (control). The samples were tested for HCMV-specific Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies by using solid phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the obtained data were analysed statistically using ANOVA and Post-Hoc Tukey’s tests.
Results: In the study group (Group1, 2 and 3) children, the overall positivity for HCMV- specific IgG was 100% and 5% borderline to IgM antibodies whereas in the control group (Group 4) it was 80% negative to HCMV- specific IgG and 100% negative to IgM antibodies.
Conclusion: From the observations noted in the present study, HCMV could be suggested as the potent aetiologic factor in the development of cleft lip/palate, mental retardation and deafness.