Muscle Activation Profiles and Co-Activation of Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscles around Knee Joint in Indian Primary Osteoarthritis Knee Patients RC09-RC14
Dr. Sanjeev Kumar Sharma,
11,12 Roop Nagar, 2nd Mahesh Nagar, Tonk Phatak, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.
Introduction: Osteoarthritis (OA) of knee is a common joint disease. It is associated with reduced knee joint stability due to impaired quadriceps strength, pain, and an altered joint structure. There is altered muscle activation in knee OA patients, which interferes with normal load distribution around the knee and facilitates disease progression.
Aim: Our primary aim was to determine activation patterns of the muscles i.e., quadriceps and hamstrings in knee OA patients during walking. We also studied co-activation of muscles around knee joint in primary OA knee patients including directed medial and lateral co-contractions.
Materials and Methods: This observational study was done at Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. Forty-four patients with medial compartment primary knee OA were included in study after satisfying inclusion and exclusion criteria. All the patients were assessed for mean, peak and integrated Root Mean Square (RMS), EMG values, muscle activation patterns and co-activation of muscles around knee joint by surface Electromyography (EMG) analysis of Vastus Medialis Obliques (VMO), Vastus Lateralis (VL), Semitendinosus (SMT) and Biceps Femoris (BF) muscles during gait cycle. The EMG waveform for each muscle was amplitude normalized and time normalized to 100% of gait cycle and plotted on graph. Quantitative variables were assessed for normal distribution and accordingly mean±SD or median (range), as appropriate, was computed.
Results: For primary OA knee, mean age 61±5 years, mean weight 63.7±10.1 kg, mean height 153.9±7.2 cm, and mean Body Mass Index (BMI) 26.8±3.0 kg/m² was found. The muscle activity of hamstrings (SMT muscle and BF) was increased during midstance, late stance and early swing phase of gait cycle as compared to quadriceps (VMO and VL) muscle activity respectively, suggesting co-contraction of opposing muscles around knee joint.
Conclusion: Patients with knee OA walk with increased hamstring muscle activity (during late stance and early swing phase) and reduced quadriceps recruitment. Altered neuro-muscular control around knee interferes with normal load distribution and facilitates disease progression in knee joint.