A Stratified Analysis of Clinical Manifestations and Different Diagnostic Methods of Neurocysticercosis- Suspected Tamilian Population Residing in and Around Puducherry DC10-DC15
Dr. Subhash Chandra Parija,
Director office, Administrative Block, JIPMER, Puducherry, India.
Introduction: Human beings are accidental hosts for Cysticercus cellulosae showing varied clinical manifestations based on the site harbored by the parasitic cyst because of which disease profile remains unexplored at large. Besides this, diagnosis of the disease with a single conventional method is problematic due to lack of specificity and sensitivity.
Aim: To assess the varied clinical manifestations and stratify based on imaging and serological methods for diagnosis of Neurocysticercosis (NCC) in our study population.
Materials and Methods: A hospital-based study was carried out at Jawaharlal Institute of Post-Graduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), the tertiary care centre caters patients from Puducherry and surrounding regions of Tamil Nadu. This is a cross-sectional analysis of clinically and radiologically suspected cases of NCC (n=119) for a period of three years (2012 to 2015). The collection of detailed clinical history and imaging findings (MRI or CT) along with the lifestyle parameters was done after obtaining informed consent. Enzyme-Linked Immune-Electro Transfer Blot (EITB) was carried out for the samples collected from study subjects.
Results: Based on dietary and environmental factors non-vegetarians, pork eaters, raw vegetable consumers and open-field defecation showed significant seropositivity. The clinical manifestations like seizures, blurring of vision and chronic headache with nausea followed by neck pain, cognitive deficits and movement disorder have higher seropositivity respectively. Generalized seizures were found to be more than focal seizures. While comparing the imaging and serological tests for NCC diagnosis, the positivity rate was 46.2% considering positive by both methods; but 18.5% of sero-positive cases were imaging negative, and 16% of the sero-negative cases were imaging positive. The study showed a predominance of multiple cysts (62%) in cases with cystic lesions.
Conclusion: This study is first of its kind in associating varied and less commonly explored clinical manifestations with two different diagnostic measures in practice and its importance among our study settings. These manifestations must be considered as strong disease entities of NCC, which has to be suggested for differential diagnosis, and cannot be left ignored. Combinatorial diagnostic methods like serology and imaging techniques should be followed in diagnosis and assessing the disease burden.