Evaluation of Total and Lipid Bound Sialic Acid in Serum in Oral Leukoplakia ZC25-ZC27
Dr. Karthik Krishnan,
Meenakshi Ammal Dental College and Hospital, Alapakkam Main Road, Maduravoyal, Chennai – 600 095, India.
Introduction: Oral cancer has become the most common cause of cancer related mortality which may be preceded by oral potentially malignant disorders. Altered glycosylation of glycoconjugates, such as sialic acid are one of the most important molecular changes accompanied during malignant transformation in precancerous lesions like Oral Leukoplakia (OL), and correlating them histopathologically with grades of epithelial dysplasia which will serve clinical significance.
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of serum Total Sialic Acid (TSA) and serum Lipid Bound Sialic Acid (LSA) as a prognostic serum marker in Oral Leukoplakia.
Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from 30 patients diagnosed with OL and 30 healthy controls. Serum sialic acid (total and lipid bound) levels were measured using spectrophotometer. Tissue samples were histopathologically typed and were graded for epithelial dysplasia. Data were analysed using Independent t-test and Kruskal Wallis method.
Results: Serum levels of both total and lipid bound sialic acids were found to be increased in OL when compared to healthy controls. The mean TSA levels among those in the OL group (45.3±4.2) were significantly greater than healthy controls (29±2.2). On multiple comparison the highest mean TSA level was found in severe OL compared to moderate and mild OL (p<0.05). The mean levels of LSA were found to be statistically non-significant between the groups.
Conclusion: The present study showed that the serum levels of both TSA and LSA were found to be increased in OL when compared to apparently healthy controls. We also found that with increasing grades of epithelial dysplasia TSA levels were found to be gradually increasing which was significant for this study serving as an early indicator for the detection of malignant transformation in OL.