Immediate Outcome of Balloon Mitral Valvuloplasty with JOMIVA Balloon during Pregnancy OC18-OC20
Dr. Shanmuga Sundaram Rathakrisnnan,
Department of Cardiology, PSG Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Peelamedu-641004, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.
Introduction: Rheumatic mitral stenosis is the most common Valvular Heart Disease encountered during pregnancy. Balloon Mitral Valvuloplasty (BMV) is one of the treatment option available if the symptoms are refractory to the medical management and the valve anatomy is suitable for balloon dilatation. BMV with Inoue balloon is the most common technique being followed worldwide. Over the wire BMV is a modified technique using Joseph Mitral Valvuloplasty (JOMIVA) balloon catheter which is being followed in certain centres.
Aim: To assess the immediate post procedure outcome of over the wire BMV with JOMIVA balloon.
Materials and Methods: Clinical and echocardiographic parameters of pregnant women with significant mitral stenosis who underwent elective BMV with JOMIVA balloon in our institute from 2005 to 2015 were analysed retrospectively. Severity of breathlessness (New York Heart Association Functional Class), and duration of pregnancy was included in the analysis. Pre procedural echocardiographic parameters which included severity of mitral stenosis and Wilkins scoring were analysed. Clinical, haemodynamic and echocardiographic outcomes immediately after the procedure were analysed.
Results: Among the patients who underwent BMV in our Institute 38 were pregnant women. Twenty four patients (63%) were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class III. All of them were in sinus rhythm except two (5%) who had atrial fibrillation. Thirty four patients (89.5%) were in second trimester of pregnancy at the time of presentation and four (10.5%) were in third trimester. Echocardiographic analysis of the mitral valve showed that the mean Wilkins score was 7.3. Mean mitral valve area pre procedure was 0.8 cm2. Mean gradient across the valve was 18 mmHg. Ten patients (26.5%) had mild mitral regurgitation and none had more than mild mitral regurgitation. Thirty six patients had pulmonary hypertension as assessed by tricuspid regurgitation jet velocity. All of them underwent BMV with JOMIVA balloon. Post procedure mean mitral valve area was 1.7 cm2 as assessed by echocardiography. Post procedure mean gradient across the mitral valve as assessed by echocardiography was 5 mmHg. Two patients had moderate to severe mitral regurgitation after the procedure and the rest had either no mitral regurgitation or mild mitral regurgitation after the procedure. None of the patients warranted mitral valve replacement after BMV. No patients had any manifestations of systemic embolism like cerebrovascular accident or limb ischemia after the procedure. None of the patients had preterm delivery or adverse fetal outcome during index hospitalisation.
Conclusion: Over the wire BMV is safe and effective method during pregnancy. The results are comparable to that of Inoue technique. BMV offers a good symptomatic improvement in pregnant women presenting with symptoms of pulmonary congestion because of Rheumatic mitral stenosis.