The Association between Periodontal Status, Serum Lipid Levels, Lipoprotein Associated Phosholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) in Chronic Periodontitis Subjects and Healthy Controls ZC17-ZC21
Dr. Jaideep Mahendra,
Professor, Department of Periodontics, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College and Hospital,
No # 1 Alapakkam Road, Madhuravoyal, Chennai-600095, Tamil Nadu, India.
Introduction: Lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) has been explored as a potential biomarker for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). The human Lp-PLA2 is a serine-dependent, Ca2+- independent enzyme. It gives way to oxidised free fatty acids and lysophosphatidyl choline by hydrolysing oxidised phospholipids, that leads to smooth muscle cell apoptosis, inflammatory cell chemotaxis and endothelial cell dysfunction in CVD. Owing to its role in inflammation, it may influence the development and progression of periodontitis as well.
Aim: To compare the demographic variables, Gingival Index(GI), Bleeding On Probing (BOP) , Probing Pocket Depth (PPD), and Clinical Attachment Level (CAL) with serum lipid profile and Lp-PLA2 level in Chronic Periodontitis (CP) subjects.
Materials and Methods: A total of 75 subjects were selected and divided into three groups; based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria: Group I - 25 subjects with severe generalized CP with CAL = 5 mm in more than 30% of sites. Group II - 25 subjects with moderate generalized CD with clinical CAL 3 mm-4 mm in more than 30% of sites. Group III- 25 systemically and periodontally healthy volunteers who served as control. Clinical parameters such as Plaque Index (PI), BOP, Probing Depth (PD) and CAL , lipid profile such as Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), High density Lipoprotein (HDL), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) as well as Lp-PLA2 were assessed. One-way ANOVA and Tukey's Post-hoc test were used for data analysis.
Results: Age was higher in Group I and II when compared to Group III. Group II showed a significant correlation between PI and LDL. In Group III, lower PI was significantly correlated with high HDL and low LDL and BOP was positively correlated with TG and HDL. A significant association of Lp-PLA2 was found to be higher with increase in the TG and VLDL level in Group I and Group II when compared to Group III.
Conclusion: The study concluded that Lp-PLA2, TG and VLDL already being a predictor biomarker for atherosclerotic disease can be an inflammatory marker for periodontitis.