Clinical Profile and Outcome of Newborns with Acute Kidney Injury in a Level 3 Neonatal Unit in Western India SC01-SC04
Dr. Somashekhar Marutirao Nimbalkar,
Department of Paediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad-Anand-388325, Gujarat, India.
Introduction: Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is a serious condition in neonatal care. It complicates the management necessitating the restrictive use of medications.
Aim: To evaluate clinical profile, identify associated and prognostic factors in newborns with AKI.
Materials and Methods: This was a case control study done between January 2008 to January 2010. Total 1745 newborns were admitted, of which 74 babies had AKI. It was defined as serum creatinine >1.5mg/dl. Control group was selected randomly from the hospital numbers of the newborns derived from the electronic registry with serum creatinine below 1.5 mg/ dl. Demographic variables like birth weight, gender, gestational age, admission age, growth restriction, Apgar scores, electrolyte levels; and common clinical conditions like asphyxia, sepsis, meningitis, persistent pulmonary hypertension, Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC), mechanical ventilation, congenital heart disease; were compared amongst the two groups. Information was obtained from the admission register, admission files, labor register of obstetrics and gynaecology department and electronic registry. Chi square/independent sample t-test as applicable and logistic regression were used to establish an association of various factors and outcome with AKI.
Results: The incidence of AKI in our study was 4.24%. Demographic variables more common in AKI group were inborn (p=0.011), male gender (p=0.032), term gestation (p=0.001), Appropriate for gestational age (0.001), higher birth weight (p<0.001), full term (p<0.001), sepsis (p<0.001), NEC (p=0.042), low ApGAR scores at one minute (p=0.011) and five minute (p=0.003). However, on multivariate logistic regression only male gender [Odds Radio (OR)=2.84, Confidence Interval (CI)=1.12- 7.21] and Sepsis (OR=14.46, CI=4.5-46.46) were associated with AKI. Respiratory distress syndrome was more prevalent in the control group (p<0.003). No need of mechanical ventilation and absence of shock, improved the survival.
Conclusions: AKI continues to be of clinical significance in neonatal intensive care. Further studies are needed to evaluate newer associations (like male gender and low APGAR scores).