Arterial Stiffness and Trace Elements in Apparently Healthy Population- A Cross-sectional Study LC12-LC15
Dr. Rama Mohan Pathapati,
Associate Professor, Department of Pharmacology, Narayana Medical College, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Introduction: Stiffening of arteries is a natural ageing process. Any diseases/disorders or risk factors that escalate oxidative stress, microvascular inflammation and endothelial damage may promote to premature vascular stiffening. Any imbalance in these trace element levels may independently contribute to the changes in the components in the arterial wall and thus, arterial stiffness via one or more mechanisms.
Aim: To evaluate the severity of arterial stiffness in apparently healthy population and also to evaluate role of various risk factors and trace elements in the severity of arterial stiffness
Materials and Methods: Male and female subjects living in urban and rural areas of Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh, India, between 20-60 years, apparently normal as judged by the clinician basing on clinical and laboratory findings, were studied. Carotid-Femoral Pulse Wave Velocity (cf-PWV) a marker of arterial stiffness was assessed using non-invasive blood pressure curve monitoring (periscope). Furthermore, we also estimated serum levels of Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Selenium (Se), chromium (Cr), Aluminium (Al), silicon (Si), Manganese (Mn), Molybdenum (Mb), Vanadium (Vn) and lead (Pb) using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. ANOVA and Chi-Square test were used to study the clinical correlations between severity of arterial stiffness, risk factors and trace elements.
Results: A total of 737 apparently healthy subjects participated in this cross-sectional study. Of the total 542 (73.5%) were from rural and the remaining 195 (26.5%) were living in urban areas, 328 (44.5%) were males, and 409 (55.5%) were females. A 63.5% (468/737) had normal arterial stiffness followed by 14.5% (107/737) with mild stiffness, 7% (57/737) had moderate stiffness and 14.2% (105/737) had severe arterial stiffness. Smoking, alcohol, blood pressures, fasting blood sugar, and total cholesterol, Cu, Al and Vn correlated (p<0.05) with different grades of arterial stiffness.
Conclusion: A 36.5% had high arterial stiffness despite being apparently healthy. Smoking, alcohol, blood pressures, fasting blood sugars, and total cholesterol, Cu, Al and Vn could have contributed for such an abnormality. Caution has to be executed while understanding the study results since the pathophysiological process is complex.