Palmoplantar Dermatoses- A Clinical Study of 300 Cases WC04-WC07
Dr. Amrita A Hongal,
Consultant Dermatologist, The Bangalore Hospital, #202, R V Road, Bengaluru 560004, Karnataka, India.
Introduction: Dermatoses affecting palms and soles are among the most difficult of all dermatological therapeutic problems. Many previous studies have focused on the specific diseases of palmoplantar dermatoses. However, none of them have included a comprehensive study of palmoplantar dermatoses.
Aims: To study the epidemiological aspects like age distribution, sex distribution, the dermatoses affecting the palms & soles and the frequency of involvement of palms, soles or both palms & soles, in patient with palmoplantar dermatoses.
Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Dermatology between October 2011 to September 2013. First 300 cases attending the department of dermatology primarily with complaints pertaining to palms and soles were enrolled in the study. After taking consent a detailed history and clinical examination pertaining to the aim of the study was recorded and analysed, which included inspection of morphology and distribution of lesions and palpation of any swelling. Direct microscopic examination of scrapings, wet mounted with 10% potassium hydroxide was done for cases with scaly lesions. Those who had a pustule, gram staining was done. Patch testing using Indian Standard Battery Series was done for those cases of eczema. A sample for biopsy was taken when diagnosis could not be arrived clinically, and subjected to histopathological examination.
Results: In our study of 300 patients with palmoplantar dermatoses, 164 were females and 136 were males, the ratio observed being 1.2:1. The peak incidence was found in the age group 21-30 years, with 41 females (25%) and 35 males (25.7%). Most frequently affected individuals in this study were housewives (30%). The most common five diseases of palmoplantar dermatoses were palmoplantar psoriasis (20.7%), moniliasis (19%), palmoplantar hyperhidrosis (7%), keratolysis exfoliativa (6%) and pitted keratolysis (6%). Majority of patients had involvement of both palms and soles (44.3%) as compared to patients with involvement of only palm (28%) and only sole (27.3%). The commonest palmoplantar dermatoses with only palm involvement was keratolysis exfoliativa (16.7%), with only sole involvement was moniliasis (41%) and with both palms and soles involvement was palmoplantar psoriasis (41.4%). Associated nail changes were seen in 80 cases (26.6%), with maximum incidence in palmoplantar psoriasis (62.5%). Associated dermatological conditions were observed in 43 patients (14.3%).
Conclusion: Palmoplantar dermatoses are frequently encount-ered in the dermatologic field. Further investigation with a wider and larger population is necessary to understand the epidemiology, based on which accurate diagnosis and proper treatment could be achieved.