Comparative Study of Delirium in Emergency and Consultation Liaison- A Tertiary Care Hospital Based Study in Northern India VC01-VC05
Dr. Arvind Sharma,
Professor and Head, Department of Psychiatry, Guru Gobind Singh Medical College and Hospital,
Faridkot-151203, Punjab, India.
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Introduction: Delirium is an acute and often fluctuating disturbance in level of consciousness and thought process (cognition) that develops over a short period of time and is a significant change from previous level of functioning. Its prevalence increases with age, complexity of medical co- morbidities and number of medications prescribed.
Aim: To compare the cause and severity of delirium in patients in emergency and consultation liaison psychiatry group.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, tertiary care hospital based study was conducted on the patients who presented with delirium from emergency department (50) and consultation-liaison psychiatry groups (50), over a period of one year. The diagnosis was made on the basis of DSM- 5 criteria. The Delirium Rating Scale (DRS-R-98) was applied to know the severity of delirium, cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms of delirium in patients. The results were subjected to appropriate statistical analysis.
Results: In emergency group, 42% patients had metabolic abnormalities, while in consultation-liaison, 38% patients had hyponatremia and hypokalemia and the difference was found to be statistically non-significant (p>0.05). In emergency group, 21(42%) patients were diagnosed as delirium due to other medical condition, followed by 13 (26%) and 8(16%) patients, who were diagnosed as delirium due to multiple aetiologies and substance intoxication each respectively. In only 33(66%) cases in consultation liaison group patients had delirium secondary to other medical conditions. As per DRS-R98 Scale, mean severity score was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05) in consultation liaison group as compared to emergency department group (p> 0.05).
Conclusion: Delirium is multifactorial aetiological disease, with variable but preventable outcome. Approach should be aimed at finding the treatable causes to reduce morbidity and mortality.