Minor Salivary Gland Changes in Oral Epithelial Dysplasia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma - A Histopathological Study ZC12-ZC15
Dr. Sunil Paramel Mohan,
Head of Department, Deparment of Oral Pathology, Director, Department of Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine,
Dean, Sree Anjaneya Institute of Dental Sciences, Calicut-673323, Kerala, India.
Introduction: The most common etiology for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is tobacco and tobacco related products which cause nuclear damage to the keratinocytes. The chemical carcinogens not only affect the lining of oral epithelium but also affect the lining epithelium of the excretory ducts of the salivary glands. Thus, there is a possibility of epithelial dysplasia of the salivary duct epithelium which may lead to potential malignant transformation.
Aim: The study was performed to see the changes in the minor salivary glands and excretory ducts in cases of oral epithelial dysplasia and OSCC.
Materials and Methods: A total of 278 archival cases of mild, moderate and severe epithelial dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, OSCC including verrucous carcinoma were histopathologically evaluated to observe changes in the excretory ducts and the minor salivary glands.
Results: In the study there were 56.5% males and 43.5% females. The age group that was most commonly affected in both the sexes was 50-60 yr old. Buccal mucosa was the most common site of involvement. Ductal changes observed in the excretory duct include simple hyperplasia, metaplastic changes such as mucous, oncocytic & squamous, and infiltration of inflammatory cells and malignant cells. Acinar changes observed were degeneration, squamous metaplasia, myoepithelial cell proliferation and inflammatory cell infiltration. Both the excretory ducts and ducts within the gland showed dysplasia.
Conclusion: According to observations in our study it is suggested that histopathological interpretation for oral mucosal lesions especially oral epithelial dysplasias and OSCC should also include changes related to salivary gland tissue to provide a better treatment plan and prevent recurrence of the malignant tumours.