Prevalence of Autoantibodies and HLA DR, DQ in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus EC09-EC13
Dr. Shailja Singh,
Research Scholar, C/O Dr. Usha Department of Pathology, Institute of Medical Sciences,
Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, UP, India.
Introduction: Type I diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is caused by autoimmune destruction of ß-cells of pancreas. Two forms of T1DM are known called as 1A (autoimmune) and 1B (idiopathic).
Aim: Aim was to study the prevalence of Anti-TTG IgA, Anti-TPO, GADA, ZnT8 and IA-2 autoantibodies and HLA DR and DQ genes and its diagnostic value in T1DM.
Materials and Methods: Thirty four T1DM patients, 59 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and 28 healthy controls were included in study. Antibodies levels were estimated by ELISA and HLA typing was performed by SSP-PCR method.
Result: The prevalence of various autoantibodies in T1DM were Anti-TTG 14.7%, Anti-TPO 17.65%, GADA 38.23%, ZnT8 11.76% and IA-2 5.88%. Only GADA and ZnT8 were significantly positive in T1DM. GADA (66.67%) and ZnT8 (33.33%) positivity was more in patients below 15 years age while levels of other antibodies were higher after 15 years age. All autoantibodies were detected in higher frequency in T1DM than in T2DM and controls. HLA DR and DQ typing showed highly significant increase in DRB1*0301 (61.76%, p=0.00) and DQB1*0201 (64.71%, p=0.00) in T1DM. Subjects with HLA DRB1*0301 and DQB1*0201 had 80-100% positive prevalence of GADA, ZnT8, IA-2, Anti-TTG and Anti-TPO autoantibodies.
Conclusion: Combination of GADA antibody with DRB1 and DQB1 estimation improved diagnosis of T1A than insulin antigen specific antibodies alone.