Prevalence of Periodontal Disease in the General Population of India-A Systematic Review ZE04-ZE09
Dr. Akhilesh H Shewale,
Post Graduate Student, Department of Periodontology, Smruti Dental College and Hospital, Nagpur -441111, India.
Introduction: Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting in destruction of tissues and structures surrounding the teeth thus, if left untreated causes loss of teeth and ultimately results in edentulism, posing a great negative impact on individuals’ quality of life. Hence the global epidemiological data suggests periodontal disease to be one of a major burden on oral diseases. To reduce this burden it is necessary to know the true prevalence of the disease according to which proper initiatives can be formulated. India being home to nearly 1.2 billion people and one amongst the rapidly developing country, its population requires being systemically as well as orally healthy to lead a good quality of life. However due to large heterogenecity amongst its residing population in terms of geographical area, culture, education, socioeconomic status, a variety of oral diseases like periodontal diseases are prevalent here. Even though the early studies suggested that the population is highly susceptible to the disease, the true prevalence of periodontal disease has not been found yet due to paucity in literature available.
Aim: To systematically review the available literature taken from various parts of India and find the prevalence rate of periodontal disease amongst the general population of India.
Materials and Methods: A literature search was performed using PUB MED, COCHRANE and EMBASE databases on August 6, 2015. Following full text assessment a thorough references search was made and potential studies were included. A Quality assessment of retrieved articles from 2nd round was done using a self designed questionnaire and only field survey studies were included in the systematic review.
Results: The literature search yielded six studies which had performed field surveys to find the prevalence of periodontal disease in their respective areas. These studies have observed different sets of age groups and the same has been accomplished by using Community Periodontal Index (CPI) or Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN). It was also found that no prevalence studies have been carried out in few North and North Eastern states and Union Territories of India.
Conclusion: Due to non-availability of same age groups in selected studies an overall prevalence rate could not be obtained. However, it was observed that few areas of states like West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh and Assam have reported a prevalence rate of periodontal disease of more than 85% in their general population. The data from the present systematic review calls for a combined initiative from the Government of India and Dental council of India to have a nationwide multicentric prevalence studies to obtain the true prevalence rate of periodontal disease in India and interventions should be provided for the same to maintain the oral health and quality of life of the affected population.