Comparison of Albumin, Hydroxyethyl Starch and Ringer Lactate Solution as Priming Fluid for Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Paediatric Cardiac Surgery UC01-UC04
Dr. Jigar Patel,
U. N. Mehta Institute of Cardiology and Research Center, (Affiliated to B. J. Medical College),
New Civil Hospital Campus, Asarwa, Ahmedabad, India.
Introduction: In paediatric cardiac surgery, there is still not any information with regard to the best choice of priming fluids for Cardiopulmonary Bypass (CPB). Albumin, Hydroxyethyl Starch (HES) & ringer lactate equally used, but each has its advantages & disadvantages. Albumin & HES had better fluid balance which affect outcome in paediatric cardiac surgery significantly.
Aim: To compare priming solution containing albumin, hydroxyethyl starch and ringer lactate during elective open-heart surgery in paediatrics aged up to 3 years.
Materials and Methods: All patients were managed by standardized institution protocol and were randomly distributed into three groups based on the priming solution which is used in the CPB Circuit and having 35 patients in each group. Group A: Receive albumin 10 ml/kg in priming solution, Group B: Receive Hydroxyethyl starch (HES130/0.4) 6% 20ml/kg in priming solution, Group C: Receive ringer lactate priming solution. Primary outcome variable included perioperative haemoglobin, total protein, colloid osmotic pressure, platelets, fluid balance, urine output, post-operative blood loss, blood products usage, renal & liver function, extubation time, ICU stay & outcome.
Results: Patients receiving albumin had higher perioperative platelet count, total protein level & colloid osmotic pressure, lesser post-operative blood loss & blood products requirement. Patients receiving HES had lower level of platelets postoperatively than ringer lactate group but not associated with increase blood loss. HES did not affect renal function & haemostasis in this dose. Patients receiving ringer lactate had positive fluid balance intraoperatively. All three groups have similar effect on renal & liver function, urine output, time to extubation, ICU stay & outcome.
Conclusion: We conclude that albumin is expensive but better prime as maintain haemostasis, colloid oncotic pressure & reduced blood product requirement. HES will not hamper haemostasis & renal function in lower dose & better than crystalloid as maintain negative fluid balance. Patient outcome & ICU stay was similarly affected by priming solutions.