Association of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Beta Thalassaemia Trait- A Case Report OD03-OD04
Dr. Bimal Kumar Agrawal,
Professor and Head, Department of Medicine, M M Medical College, M M University, Mullana-133207, Haryana, India.
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem chronic inflammatory disease of autoimmune aetiology. It has a predilection for female gender and presence of photosensitive rash over the sun exposed area gives a clue to the diagnosis. Diagnosis in a male patient with atypical manifestations is unusual and difficult. A 25-year-old male presented with fever, fatigue, vomiting, abdominal pain and loss of weight. He had sustained injury on his right arm following which he developed abscess at the trauma site and severe anaemia. Further evaluation revealed pancytopenia and peritonitis. Though peritonitis is rare in SLE, it was considered in the differential diagnosis after ruling out bacterial and tubercular peritonitis. Positive anti-dsDNA and antiSm antibodies confirmed the diagnosis. While evaluating for microcytic anaemia it was found that iron studies were normal and A2 fraction was raised in haemoglobin electrophoresis. The symptoms and laboratory parameters improved remarkably with steroid therapy. Beta thalassaemia trait is rare in patients with SLE, but when they co-exist the manifestations can be severe. High degree of suspicion is required to diagnose SLE in male patients in absence of typical photosensitive rash. Beta thalassaemia trait often does not require any treatment except genetic counseling. However empirical treatment with iron should be avoided.