En-Plaque Central Nervous System Tuberculoma - An Uncommon Entity: Clinico-Radiological Profile in a Cohort from a Tertiary Referral Centre OC11-OC14
Dr. Praveen kumar Srikanteswara,
Associate Professor, Department of Neurology, Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute,
Bangalore, Karnataka, India.
Introduction: Case reports pertaining to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) diagnosis of en-plaque tuberculoma are limited. To the best of our knowledge, descriptions about en-plaque tuberculoma are limited to few isolated case reports. This paper comprehensively depicts the clinical and radiological features in such patients and may serve not to miss this uncommon manifestation of a common central nervous system infection.
Materials and Methods: A descriptive documentation of the patient cohort with a detailed history and neurological examination were carried out in all the patients. All underwent MRI Brain which revealed en-plaque tuberculoma. Relevant investigations including Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) were done in all patients. CSF Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was done in all.
Results: Eight adult patients (two women and six men) with MRI showing en-plaque CNS tuberculoma were seen during a period of five years. None had suffered from TB in the past nor had history of contact with tuberculosis. All patients demonstrated extra axial dural based lesions and none had cerebral ooedema, parenchymal lesions, mass effect or midline shift. The lesions were located in bilateral corresponding regions in two patients and the rest six had unilateral lesions. Seven patients had lesions located in the supratentorial compartment; one had lesion extending to the infratentorium along the tentorium cerebelli. Various patterns of enhancement were noted in our patients: thin peripheral (n=3), homogenous (n=3), varied enhancement (n=1) and open ring enhancement (n=1). CSF Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was tested positive for tuberculosis in all of our patients.
Conclusion: While MRI provides an understanding of the topography of the lesion, PCR helped in establishing the diagnosis of tuberculosis in our patients. Awareness about en-plaque tuberculomas can heighten the index of suspicion and can thus prevent aggressive surgical resections and thereby reduce mortality and morbidity.