A Comparative Study to Assess the Determinants and Outcomes of Sepsis Treated in Medical Wards and ICU in an Indian Teaching Hospital OC01-OC06
Dr. Prasanta Kumar Bhattacharya,
Professor and Head, Department of General Medicine,
North Eastern Indira Gandhi Regional Institute of Health & Medical Sciences, Mawdiangdiang, Shillong-793018, India.
Introduction: Sepsis is the primary cause of death from infection worldwide. In resource-limited countries, increasing number of sepsis is managed in non-ICU settings, in Medical Wards (MW).
Aim: To compare the burden, aetiology and short term outcome of sepsis treated in MW with ICU.
Materials and Methods: Prospective, observational, analytical study in sepsis patients in general MW and medical ICU in a tertiary care hospital. Two hundred forty five sepsis patients (MW=150, ICU=95), =18 years, selected randomly, were studied to compare aetiology, co-morbidities, clinical & microbiological profile and short-term outcome between MW and ICU sepsis. Sepsis following surgery, trauma, those transferred to/from ICU, those with other life threatening diseases were excluded. Chi-square test/Fisher’s-exact test was used for comparing ratios. A ‘p-value’ <0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: Sepsis was more common in elderly males, both in MW and ICU (median age: 56.7, 59.2 years; male: female ratios = 1.34:1, 1.63:1 respectively). Frequency of presenting symptoms, co-morbidities and sources of sepsis were similar in both groups (p>0.05). Frequency of positive microbiological culture, pattern of microbial flora and antimicrobial resistance patterns were similar in both groups (p>0.05). Number of antibiotics used was significantly higher in ICU compared to MW (p<0.01); multi-organ dysfunction and mortality were significantly higher in ICU settings (55.8% vs. 38.7%, p=0.04; 48.4% vs. 32.6%, p=0.041 respectively). While sepsis and severe sepsis were significantly higher in MW (34.6% vs. 22.1 %, p=0.03; 47.3% vs. 26.3%, p<0.01 respectively), septic shock was significantly higher in ICU (51.6% vs. 18.0%, p<0.01). Mortality in both settings was highest in septic shock (55.5% and 61.2%, p>0.05) and multi-organ dysfunction (55.1% and 64.2%, p>0.05). Duration of hospital stay was significantly shorter in MW than ICU (7.3 vs. 11.0 days, p<0.01).
Conclusion: Our study aimed to identify determinants and outcome of sepsis in MW and compare with ICU settings. Antibiotic usage in the two settings differed: concurrent use of =3 antibiotics, and carbapenems & linezolid usage were significantly higher in ICU compared to MW. Sepsis in MW had significantly lower incidence of multi-organ failure, lower mortality and shorter hospital stay compared to ICU.