Diagnostic and Prognostic Significance of Various Histopathological Features in Extrahepatic Biliary Atresia EC23-EC27
Dr. Shenbagam Jeevakarunyam Muthukanagarajan,
Plot No. 117/118, P.U. Chinnapa Nagar, Pudukottai, Tamilnadu - 622001, India.
Introduction: Extrahepatic biliary atresia is a progressive disorder characterised by fibroinflammatory obliteration or stenosis of the extrahepatic biliary tree leading to obstruction of bile flow and cholestatic jaundice. It is the most common cause for cholestasis in newborn. Histopathological criteria for diagnosing biliary atresia from liver biopsy have not been clearly defined.
Aim: This study was undertaken to analyse the significance of the various histopathological features in diagnosis and prognosis of extrahepatic biliary atresia from liver biopsy specimens.
Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of 43 cases of extra-hepatic biliary atresia diagnosed and treated at a tertiary care hospital between January 2010 to December 2014. Formalin fixed paraffin embedded liver biopsy tissues were processed by standard technique and the slides were stained with haematoxylin and eosin. All the slides were reviewed and graded by a semi-quantitative scoring system. Features such as increased age at kasaiís portoenterostomy, portal fibrosis, bile duct proliferation, cholestasis, portal inflammation and duct plate malformation were studied. Statistical analysis was worked out using SPSS 17.0 (statistical package for the social science software). Chi-square test was used to find association between various parameters with respect to mortality and Kaplan-Meier estimator was used for survival analysis of the population under study.
Results: In this study comprising of 43 cases, only 6 cases (13.95%) were alive at the end of 6 months follow-up. Twenty patients who died and the 17 cases with poor survival had greater degrees of fibrosis, bile duct proliferation and cholestasis. Majority of the cases with duct plate malformation expired inspite of earlier surgical intervention. Thus proving the association of fibrosis, bile duct proliferation, cholestasis and duct plate malformation with the survival and prognosis of biliary atresia cases. Age at surgery did not show any correlation with prognosis as cases operated even at <60 days had poor survival.
Conclusion: From this study it can be concluded that in extrahepatic biliary atresia patients, presence of duct plate malformation, greater degrees of fibrosis, bile duct proliferation and cholestasis were strongly associated with poor prognosis.