Carriage of Multidrug Resistant Bacteria on Frequently Contacted Surfaces and Hands of Health Care Workers DC18-DC20
Dr. Kennedy Kumar Palraj,
No 25 First School Street, Chattiram, Pattabiram, Chennai-600072, India.
Introduction: Maximal contact between the patients and Health Care Workers (HCWs) happens in the Intensive Care Units (ICU). Control of nosocomial infections requires compliance with hand hygiene and contamination free surfaces.
Aim: To determine the colonization of potential pathogens in the hands of HCWs and frequent contacted environmental surfaces.
Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted between September 2012 and May 2013 at Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Hospital. A total of 327 samples were collected using Glove juice technique from hands and swabs from frequently contacted surfaces. A sum of 157 samples were collected by glove juice technique from the hands of HCWs which included Consultants (20), Internees (3), Residents (10), Staff nurse (102) and support staff (22). A total of 170 samples were collected through swabbing which included frequently touched surfaces of apron and dress (140 which included 10 consultants, 3 internees, 9 Residents, 101 Staff nurse and 17 support staff), 9 door handle, 4 key board, 12 tap handles and 5 monitors. The samples were inoculated into Blood agar, Chocolate agar and Mac-Conkey agar plates and incubated at 370C aerobically. The plates showing growth were further processed to identify the organisms by Gram staining and biochemical reactions. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done for the isolates by Kirby-baur disc diffusion method as per CLSI guidelines.
Results: Out of the 157 hand sampling done by glove juice method 67(42.7%) of them showed growth and 90(57.3%) showed no growth. The potential pathogens grown were 13 (8.3%), consisting of Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) 6(3.8%), Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) 2(1.3%), Pseudomonas spp 4(2.6%) and Acenitobacter spp 1 (0.6%). The MRSA was seen in Consultant 1(5%; n=20) and Staff nurse 1(0.9%; n= 102). Among the 140 sampling from the dress of HCWs growth was observed in 69(49.3%) and growth was absent in 71(50.7%). The potential pathogens observed were 14(10%) and they are MSSA 5(3.6%), MRSA 1 (0.7%), Pseudomonas spp 2(1.4%), Acenitobacter spp 3(2.1%) Enterobacter spp 1(0.7%), Klebseilla pneumoniae 1(0.7%) and Candida spp 1(0.7%). One MRSA was isolated from staff nurse (0.9%; n=101). Similarly multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae 1(0.9%; n=102). Out of the 30 environmental samples 16(53.3%) showed growth and in 14(56.7%) growth was absent. The potential pathogens isolated were 3(10%) which included MSSA 2(6.6%) and MRSA 1(3.4%) and were isolated from the monitor.
Conclusion: Adherence to infection control practices among all categories of HCWs is must for control of HAI. Glove juice method is a simple, easy and practical technique for determination of colonization of hands of HCWs and can be adapted as a methodology for screening the hands of HCWs.