Arterial Compliance and Autonomic Functions in Adult Male Smokers CC12-CC16
Dr. Sukhmani Saini,
Subhartipuram, Kotda Santaur, Aamwala Road, P.O Chandanwadi
Nanda ki Chowki, Prem Nagar, Dehradun-248007, India.
Introduction: Smoking is known to augment sympathetic activity and may lead to increased arterial stiffness. Several studies have reported association of increased sympathetic activity and arterial stiffness to cardiovascular risks among smokers. Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) of peripheral arteries, instead of aorta can be used as a non-invasive indicator of arterial stiffness.
Aim: To measure non-invasively, the autonomic functions and peripheral arterial stiffness in smokers, and to find out whether the aforementioned factors are modified by the level of physical activity in these smokers.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, HIMS, Dehradun, over a period of 12 months (2013-2014) on 100 adult males (20-40 years); 50 smokers and 50 non-smokers. The parameters analysed include relevant anthropometric and cardiovascular parameters, Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV), sustained Hand Grip Test (HGT) and Heart Rate Variability (HRV) domains. Data interpretation and analysis was carried out using SPSS 17.0. Comparison of the above mentioned parameters amongst groups was done with unpaired t-test. The relationship of pack-years & physical activity with vascular functions was assessed by Pearson’s correlation. Interaction of various grades of smoking and physical activity with Cardiovascular System (CVS) parameters was assessed by one-way ANOVA.
Results: Smokers had higher values of PWV (5.7±0.5m/s) as compared to non-smokers (4.8±0.4m/s) (p<0.001). ?DBP during HGT was lower (7±3.18mmHg) among smokers as compared to non-smokers (19.4±3.5mmHg) (p<0.001). Smoking (pack-years) was positively related to PWV (r= .03) but showed a weak negative relationship with change in Diastolic Blood Pressure (?DBP) (r= -0.084, p=0.56) showing that, more the frequency of smoking, the more was arterial stiffening and the lesser was the sympathetic response to the HGT. The smokers had significantly higher sympathetic activity; Low Frequency (LF) & Low Frequency: High Frequency ratio (LF: HF) (p<.001) whereas High Frequency (HF) was significantly lower (p<.001) showing a decline in parasympathetic activity.
Conclusion: Smokers demonstrated higher peripheral PWV and higher intrinsic sympathetic activity and this increase in intrinsic sympathetic activity may lead to increased arterial stiffness. Interaction of autonomic function and PWV with levels of physical activity and grades of smoking showed no significant differences, suggesting the fact that increased physical activity or reduced smoking may not have any effect on the endothelial dysfunction or CVS morbidity caused by smoking.