Treatment of Resistant Cyclophosphamide Induced Haemorrhagic Cystitis: Review of Literature and Three Case Reports PD15-PD16
Dr. Turgay Ebiloglu,
Etimesgut Military Hospital, Department of Urology, 06010 Etimesgut/Ankara, Turkey.
Haemorrhagic Cystitis (HC) is defined as diffuse inflammatory bladder bleeding due to many aetiologies. Massive HC often arises from anticancer chemotherapy or radiotherapy for the treatment of pelvic malignancies. Phosphamides are the anti-cancer drugs used for treating breast cancer, B-cell lymphoma, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythaematosis by cross-linking strands of DNA and preventing the cell division. They are also used in bone marrow transplantation for prevention of Graft Versus Host Disease (GVHD). Hepatic metabolism of phosphamide forms acrolein, and acrolein makes ulceration, haemorrhage, edema and necrosis of the urothelium during its excretion by the urine. Infectious causes of HC in immunocomprimesed patients are adenovirus, BK polyoma-virus (BK), JC virus, and Cytomegalovirus (CMV). The present article attempts to make a review of literature for the treatment of intractable HC and report three cases with HC.