Chronic Periodontitis in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Oxidative Stress as a Common Factor in Periodontal Tissue Injury BC12-BC16
Dr. Vidya S. Patil,
Professor and Head, Department of Biochemistry, SDM College of Medical Sciences and Hospital,
Dharwad-580009, Karnataka, India.
Introduction: The prevalence of periodontitis is significantly higher among people with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. Majority of tissue destruction in periodontitis is considered to be the result of an aberrant inflammatory/immune response to microbial plaque and involve prolonged release of reactive oxygen species (ROS). There is increased evidence for compromised antioxidant capacity in periodontal tissues and fluids which may be an added factor for tissue damage in periodontitis.
Aim: To study the possible role of Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant status in blood among chronic periodontitis patients with and without Type 2 Diabetes mellitus.
Materials and Methods: The study comprised of total 100 subjects among which 25 were normal healthy controls, 25 were gingivitis patients, 25 were chronic periodontitis patients (CP) and 25 were having chronic periodontitis with type 2 diabetes (CP with DM). ROS levels were determined as MDA (Malondialdehyde) and antioxidant status as plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC), vitamin C and erythrocyte Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity.
Results: There was significant increase in MDA levels in all the patient groups compared with healthy controls (p<0.05). The decrease in TAC, Vitamin C and SOD levels among CP with DM patients as compared to controls was highly significant (p<0.01). There was a positive correlation between the probing pocket depth and MDA levels among periodontitis patients with diabetes (r=0.566, p=0.003).
Conclusion: There is increased oxidative stress in chronic periodontitis with and without type 2 diabetes indicating a common factor involvement in tissue damage. More severe tissue destruction in periodontitis is associated with excessive ROS generation which is positively correlated in type 2 diabetic subjects.