Open Versus Closed Laparoscopy: Yet an Unresolved Controversy QC04-QC07
Dr. Milan Kumar Taye,
Assistant Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Assam Medical College & Hospital,
Dibrugarh, Assam-786001, India.
Introduction: Safe placement of the Verres needle or the primary trocar for establishment of pneumoperitoneum is the most critical step in laparoscopic procedure as it is associated with bowel, bladder and life threatening vascular injuries and embolism. In the last few decades many techniques and guidelines have been introduced to eliminate complications in creation of pneumoperitoneum. Classical closed technique (Verres needle) and the open classic technique (Hasson) are the most commonly used techniques for creation of pneumoperitoneum.
Aim: To compare the rate of occurrence and nature of complications in open and closed laparoscopy during establishment of pneumoperitoneum in different surgical and gynaecological procedures.
Materials and Methods: This was a comparative study conducted at three hospitals in Dibrugarh district, Assam, India from January 2012 to December 2014. Total 3000 cases were included in the study with 1500 cases of open laparoscopy and 1500 cases of closed laparoscopy. Complications occurring in both the groups were compared by using Fisher’s-exact test.
Results: In closed laparoscopy group minor complications occurred in 80 (5.33%) and major complications in 20 (1.33%) cases. In open laparoscopy group minor complications were observed in 60 (4%) and major complications in 2 (0.13%). The p-value of the difference between the two groups for minor complications was 0.0834 and for major complications was 0.0001(significant).
Conclusion: Open laparoscopy was seen to be better than closed laparoscopy in terms of not only the rate of occurrence of complications but also the nature and severity of the complications. This study is clinically relevant as there is no consensus for a particular method of safe entry in to the peritoneal cavity warranting the need for more research. Open technique can be performed in all cases irrespective of previous operative scar, suspected intra peritoneal adhesions or obesity. Favourable outcome may be achieved in closed technique in cases of normal BMI, absence of postoperative scar in the abdomen, absence of abdominal and genital tuberculosis and pelvic inflammatory disease.