Impact of Coagulation Profile on Outcome of Head Injury PC04-PC06
Dr. Rajveer Garg,
Senior Resident, Department of Neurosurgery, DMC & Hospital,
Civil Lines, Ludhiana- 141001, Punjab, India.
Introduction: Worldwide, head injury is recognized as a major public health problem. Head injury patients often develop consumptive coagulopathy in the absence of other trauma or haemorrhages. The release of tissue factor from the damaged brain is postulated as the cause of coagulopathy.
Aim: To know the impact of coagulation profile derangements and their effect on the outcome of head injury patients.
Materials and Methods: Fifty patients in the age group of 20-70 years admitted with isolated head injury were taken. Samples of complete haemogram (CBC), prothrombin time (PTI), partial thromboplastin time (PTK), D-Dimers and fibrinogen were taken within 24 hour of admission. Coagulopathy was defined as platelet counts < 100,000 cells/mm2 and PTI >15 seconds or a DIC score more than 4. The outcome in each group was measured according to Glasgow outcome score. Coagulation abnormalities were analysed.
Results: In case of severe head injury, p-values in patients who died with regard to DIC score, Prothrombin time and APTT were found to be significant (p< 0.05). For D-Dimers, fibrinogen and platelets counts the p-value was not significant. In case of moderate head injury, p-values in patients who died with regard to DIC score, platelet count, Prothrombin time, D-Dimer and APTT were found to be significant (0.05). For fibrinogen level it was insignificant. The mean DIC score and mean GOS in the severe head injury patients was significant (p<0.001).
Conclusion: Patients with isolated head injury are at risk of development of coagulation abnormalities, which is associated with poor outcome. Based on our results we also emphasize the importance of early diagnosis of coagulation abnormalities in isolated head injury patients.