Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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On Sep 2018

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"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

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On Aug 2018

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Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help oneĺs reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journalsľNo manuscriptsľNo authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2023 | Month : February | Volume : 17 | Issue : 2 | Page : AC01 - AC05 Full Version

Morphometric Analysis of Great Cardiac Vein and its Clinical Implication-A Cadaveric Study

Published: February 1, 2023 | DOI:
Jolly Agarwal, Anurag Agrawal, Virendra Kumar, DN Sinha

1. Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, GDMC, Dehrakhas, Patel Nagar, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India. 2. Professor and Head, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, GDMC, Dehrakhas, Patel Nagar, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India. 3. Ex-Professor, Department of Anatomy, SRMSIMS, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India. 4. Ex-Professor, Department of Anatomy, GMC, Haldwani, Uttarakhand, India.

Correspondence Address :
Jolly Agarwal,
Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, GDMC, Dehrakhas, Patel Nagar, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India.


Introduction: Great Cardiac Vein (GCV) is the longest venous vessel of heart. It is the main tributary of the coronary sinus and anterior wall of the left ventricle and interventricular septum are drained by GCV.

Aim: To study the morphometry of GCV and its variations in north-western region of India.

Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, SRMS IMS, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India, from January 2012 to December 2013. Thirty hearts of different ages and of both sexes (22 males and 8 females) procured from cadavers in the department were studied. The length and diameter of GCV were measured with help of thread and digital vernier callipers. The mean, standard deviation and correlation were calculated using Microsoft office excel 2007.

Results: In present study, 30 hearts (mean age: 41.83±12.37 years) of both sexes (22 males and 8 females) were studied. The mean length of GCV was 79.26±22.78 mm and the range of length was from 55.50±27.57 to 112.33±36.07 mm. The mean diameter of GCV was 2.85±1.32 mm. The mean length of GCV in males was 83.26±22.05 mm, while in females, the mean length of GCV was 74.72±22.08 mm. The diameter of GCV was having significant relation with weight (r=-0.663, p-value=0.0007) and age group (r=0.481; p-value=0.023) in cadaveric males.

Conclusion: The present morphometric study of GCV provides data for measurement of interventional devices required during interventional procedure in Indian setting.


Cadaver, Coronary, Diameter, Length

The main and longest tributary of coronary sinus is GCV. Coronary sinus is present in all hearts and it drains anterior wall of the left ventricle and interventricular septum (1). GCV receives tributaries like left marginal vein that ascends along the left border of the heart, obtuse marginal vein, left inferior veins from left ventricle and vein of Marshall (2). GCV and the middle cardiac vein is the most stable tributary of the coronary sinus (3). The anastomosis between GCV and middle cardiac vein forms an arch at the apex of heart (4).

Brocq and Mouchet’s arterio-venous triangle is formed by the intersection of the GCV, the circumflex artery and the anterior interventricular artery branches of the left coronary artery. The coronary vessels, pericardium, myocardium are identified by doing intravascular ultrasound in the area of Brocq and Mouchet triangle. GCV also forms one of the boundaries of Brocq and Mouchet triangle and this triangle is commonly used for Percutaneous In-situ Coronary venous Arterialisations (PICA) (5).

The length of GCV is important for providing data about left ventricular leads in the postero-lateral branches of the coronary sinus. Therefore, morphology and morphometry of GCV assumes clinical importance for invasive cardiac procedures. So that management of patients will be improved and chances of complications are less during interventional procedures (6). During drainage of GCV into coronary sinus, GCV forms an obtuse angle with coronary sinus (7).

The GCV is the most stable tributary of coronary sinus, thus it may be more suitable for interventional devices (3). Therefore, present study was conducted to study the dimensions of GCV (diameter and length) which may be used in future for interventional devices (left ventricular leads) in India.

Till date, very few studies (6),(8) have been reported for GCV regarding its morphometry and morphology particularly in north Indian population. Hence, present study was conducted to study the morphometry of GCV and its variations in north western region.

Material and Methods

This cross-sectional study was performed in the Department of Anatomy, SRMS IMS, Bareilly on 30 hearts from embalmed cadavers, from January 2012 to December 2013. The present study was exempted from institutional ethical clearance as all hearts were obtained from voluntarily donated cadavers to the Department of Anatomy. The prior written consent from the immediate relatives was taken for use of body for research purpose.

Inclusion criteria: Thirty hearts, procured from the cadavers, aged between 15-65 years, available in the Department of Anatomy, SRMS IMS, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, were included.

Exclusion criteria: The diseased, decomposed, and hearts with congenital anomaly were excluded from the study.

Study Procedure

The hearts were cleaned gently under running water to remove any blood clots, if any. The human hearts were fixed in 10% formalin and dissected. The morphology of GCV in human hearts was observed. The length and diameter of GCV (at the site of opening into coronary sinus) was measured with the help of digital Vernier callipers and thread [Table/Fig-1-3]. The authors noted information about weight and age of cadavers from departmental records which were submitted at the time of death. Hearts were divided into 5-year age groups because number of hearts available was less in each age group.

Statistical Analysis

The data were analysed by Microsoft Office Excel 2007 and presented as mean value and Standard deviation. Data were statistically analysed using Pearsons Correlation and Chi-square test.


The mean age of cadavers was 41.83±12.37 years. The 22 hearts were from males and 8 hearts were from females. In this study, the authors found the presence of GCV on entire length of anterior interventricular sulcus in 13 (43.33%) cadaveric hearts whereas in 17 (56.67%) cadaveric hearts, the GCV was present in upper 2/3 part of anterior interventricular sulcus. There was only 1 (3.33%) heart, where the GCV was starting from the apex of heart, while in rest of the hearts GCV start from anterior interventricular sulcus. Majority of GCV were straight but in 1(3.33%) heart GCV showed kinkings. The diagonal branches of left coronary artery were superficially crossed by GCV in 1(3.33%) heart (Table/Fig 4). GCV was on left-side of anterior interventricular artery in 1 (3.33%) heart (Table/Fig 5).

The present study also revealed that Vieussens valve was present in 23 (76.66%) GCV. The mean length of GCV was 79.26±22.78 mm and the range of length was from 55.50±27.57 to 112.33±36.07 mm. The mean diameter of GCV was 2.85±1.32 mm and its range was from 0.8±0.41 to 4.2±1.16 mm. The statistical analysis also depicted the diameter of GCV is having significant variation in relation age of cadaver (r=0.376 and p=0.0403) (Table/Fig 6).

The mean length of GCV in males was 83.26±22.05 mm, while in females the mean length of GCV was 74.72±22.08 mm. Therefore the length of GCV was less in females as compared to males. The mean diameter of GCV in males was 2.88±1.43 mm and in females was 2.87±0.75 mm. Therefore, diameter of GCV in males and females are comparable (Table/Fig 7).

The diameter of GCV was having significant relation with weight of cadaver in male heart (r=-0.663, p-value=0.0007). The diameter of GCV was found to be significantly lower as compared to higher age group (r=0.481; p-value=0.023) in males and significant statistically. The relationships between length and age (r-value 0.15, p-value 0.49) and length and weight (r-value 0.19, p-value 0.85) were statistically insignificant (Table/Fig 8).

There was a positive correlation between diameter of GCV and weight of cadaver in female heart but this relation was not statistically significant (r=0.34, p-value=0.409). The diameter of GCV was found to be lower as compared to higher age group and but was statistically insignificant. (r=0.3, p-value=0.47). The relationships between length and age (r-value=0.107, p-value=0.79) and length and weight (r-value=0.423, p-value=0.44) were statistically insignificant (Table/Fig 9).


The authors in the present study found the presence of GCV in entire length of anterior interventricular sulcus in 43.33% cadaveric hearts and its presence in upper 2/3 part of anterior interventricular sulcus in 56.67%. Kacznarek M and Czerwin┬┤ ski F, found that the GCV in 17% cases came both into middle 1/3 and superior third of interventricular sulcus which also endorsed present findings that the majority of the GCV covers upper 2/3 of anterior interventricular sulcus (8). While in another study, it was observed that GCV originated from the cardiac apex in 57.4% of cases and from lower third of the anterior interventricular sulcus in 39.7% (9).

The present study showed that the GCV starts from the apex of heart (3.33%) and forms anastomotic arch with middle cardiac vein. Kacznarek M and Czerwin┬┤ ski F, reported that in 25% cases GCV united at the apex of heart with the MCV, forming a large venous arc which endorsed the present study finding (8).

In the present study, the authors found that the length of GCV (79.26±22.39 mm) was maximum in middle age group (41-45 years) whereas it was found lesser in early and late age group (mean maximum length-112.33±36.07 mm and mean minimum length 72±00 mm) though statistical analysis did not reveal any significant relationship. In one study, it was reported that maximum length of GCV which was measured from the beginning of the longest branch and finishing in the lower left part of coronary sulcus, amounted 25.53 cm, the minimum length 12.4 cm and the average length 17.7 cm (8).

The present study found that the mean diameter of GCV is 79.26±22.78 mm which is close to study of Kulkarni V et al., while the mean diameter of GCV is 182.4±23.5 mm from the study of Abbara S et al., (6),(10). These differences may be due to difference in study population. Comparison of findings in present study with contrast studies are summarised in (Table/Fig 10) (3),(6),(10),(11),(12),(13),(14). The present study revealed that GCV was present in all hearts. Gilard M et al., also reported that two veins are consistently present: the middle cardiac vein and the GCV (11).

The GCV lies on the left-side of anterior interventricular artery in 60% and on the right-side of anterior interventricular artery 20%. Ortale JR et al., found that in 36 (97%) out of 37 specimens the anterior interventricular branch of the left coronary artery was accompanied by the anterior interventricular vein, with the vein usually located parallel and left to the artery (15). Kacznarek M and Czerwin┬┤ ski F, reported that anterior interventricular vein, in its course, accompanied the anterior interventricular branch of the left coronary artery in 83% of the cases and the vein was present parallel and left-side of the artery (8). Ballesteros LE et al., reported that the GCV located to the left of the anterior interventricular artery in 77.9% (9). All above studies endorsed finding of the present study that GCV most commonly present on left-side of anterior interventricular artery.

The GCV was observed in the lower 2/3 of interventricular sulcus on the right-side of anterior interventricular artery and in upper 1/3 on the left-side of the anterior interventricular artery (10%) in 3 hearts. In one heart, the authors observed that in the lower part of anterior interventricular sulcus the GCV was intertwined by anterior descending branch of left coronary artery (3.33%). Maric I et al., reported in one case out of 40 case that anterior interventricular vein (GCV) curved twice around the anterior interventricular branch of left coronary artery in their article (16). Meguid EA and Rahman WA observed that in one case GCV curved around the anterior interventricular branch of left coronary artery (17).

Agarwal J et al., observed that 36.66% of the GCV anastomose with middle cardiac vein to form a complete venous ring surrounding the left ventricle (5). The variation in respect to presence, location, and superficial and deep relationship of cardiac vein with single crossings of the anterior interventricular and circumflex branch of are rare but intertwined variation are important to understand the mechanism of vasculo-angiogenesis and clinical implications for catheter based procedures and surgeries in the region of coronary sulcus (18).

The GCV while passing through atrioventricular groove superficially crossed by diagonal branches of the descending branch of left coronary artery (6.66%). In one cadaveric heart, the beginning of GCV observed as having two tributaries which were located on either side of anterior interventricular artery in anterior interventricular groove and in one heart, the GCV lies deep to diagonal branches of anterior interventricular branch of left coronary artery (3.33%). In nine hearts the GCV lie deep to anterior interventricular artery (30%). The end part of the GCV crosses superficial to the circumflex artery at the level of left marginal vein (13). Kaczmarek M and Czerwin┬┤ ski F, found in 39% of cases the GCV ran near the coronary sulcus over the diagonal and circumflex branches of left coronary artery, in another 39% GCV passed over the circumflex artery and simultaneously under the diagonal branches, in 8% cases, it ran over the diagonal branch and under the circumflex in 14% cases GCV ran under the diagonal and circumflex both the branches (8). During postmortem, Vieussens valve of GCV may cause obstruction to passage of catheter (19).

Maros TN et al., found that the valve of Vieussens was present in 78%, but well developed in 6% of the cases (20), while other study reported that the Vieussens valve was present in 65.1% of hearts (21). Zawadzkie M et al., reported that valve presence to vary from 65-87% (22). In the present study, the authors observed the presence of Vieussens valve in 23 out of 30 hearts (76.66%) like other studies.


The sample size of the present study was small.


There was gender-wise difference in length of GCV while diameter is comparable in GCV of male and female human hearts. The morphometric study of GCV provides data for interventional devices required during interventional procedure of heart. This study also provides data for GCV in Indian setting. It is recommended to conduct the multicentric studies on a larger sample size to endorse the findings of this study.


Zabina B, Singla RK, Sharma RK, Bala N. Morphological and morphometric study of coronary sinus in North Indian Population. J Clin Diagn Res. 2017;11(9):15-19. [crossref] [PubMed]
Loukas M. Heart. Gray’s anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice. Standring S (ed): Elsevier, London; 2021. 42nd edition: 1068-96.
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DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2023/59961.17450

Date of Submission: Aug 31, 2022
Date of Peer Review: Oct 03, 2022
Date of Acceptance: Dec 23, 2022
Date of Publishing: Feb 01, 2023

• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was Ethics Committee Approval obtained for this study? No
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? Yes (from relatives)
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. NA

• Plagiarism X-checker: Sep 13, 2022
• Manual Googling: Dec 01, 2022
• iThenticate Software: Dec 22, 2022 (21%)

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