Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
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An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
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Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
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Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

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Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


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Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
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In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
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Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2012 | Month : June | Volume : 6 | Issue : 5 | Page : 832 - 834

A Prospective Study of Children Who were Admitted for Diabetes Mellitus at a Jamaican Hospital

Dalip Ragoobirsingh, Donovan Anthony McGrowder

1. Biochemistry Section, Departments of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Mona Campus, Kingston, Jamaica. 2. Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medical Sciences,The University of the West Indies, Mona Campus, Kingston, Jamaica.

Correspondence Address :
Prof. Dalip Ragoobirsingh Biochemistry Section, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Mona Campus, Kingston 7, Jamaica W.I. Tel: 876-927-2290; Fax: 876-977-3823. Mobile: 1-876-509-0523. E-mail: dalip.ragoobirsingh@uwimona.edu.jm

Abstract

Background: Type 1 diabetes mellitus is the predominant form of youth onset diabetes, and a majority of hospital admissions of this group of patients is usually due to a poor control of diabetes.

Objective: This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children who were admitted to the Bustamante Hospital for Children in Jamaica over a ten year period.

Methods and Materials: A medical records study was conducted over this ten year period.

Results: These showed that there were 77,679 admissions, of which 85 were for type 1 diabetes mellitus. Fifty (50) percent of the latter was between 8-12 years old. Female diabetic patients were twice as that of the males.

Conclusion: It appears that one in every thousand children who were admitted to this institution were admitted for type 1 diabetes mellitus, and that girls between the ages of 8-12 years were more at risk.

Keywords

Diabetes mellitus, Admissions, Children, Hospital

INTRODUCTION
The Caribbean island of Jamaica has an area of 11,460 square kilometers and a population of just over 2.7 million, which is predominantly of Afro-origin. From the most recent census, 27.32% of the population was found to be under 15 years of age (1). Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common diseases which is prevalent in school-going children. Type 1 diabetes mellitus is the predominant form of youth onset diabetes, accounting for most of the cases of diabetes with an onset before 20 years of age (2), (3). In the Caribbean, the estimated prevalence rate of type 1 diabetes in children under 15 years of age ranged from 6.4 per 10,000 in Puerto Rico to 0.3 per 10,000 in Haiti in 1997 (4). In Jamaica, the prevalence of diabetes among persons who were aged 25-74 years has been estimated to be 12% to 16% (5), (6), and a point prevalence of 17.9% was found in the 15 years and above age group of the population (7).

The SEARCH study for Diabetes in Youth, one of the largest to examine this phenomenon, estimated that the prevalence of diabetes in the United States residents, who were less than 20 years old in 2001 was 1.82 per 1,000 persons, with 15% of the 10-19 years olds having type 2 diabetes mellitus (8). In a study which was done by Tulloch-Reid et al , type 1 diabetes was found to be the most common form of diabetes in Jamaicans with youth onset diabetes, with 22% of the participants who were studied having type 2 diabetes (9).

The hospitalization in children and adolescents with diabetes is associated with a high individual burden and high social costs (10), (11). The data on the hospitalization of diabetic paediatric patients is scarce. We undertook this study to examine the admission rate of type 1 diabetic patients who were under the age of 13 years old at the Bustamante Hospital for Children in Jamaica.

Material and Methods

The hospital notes in the medical records of all the children with diabetes mellitus who were admitted to the Bustamante Hospital for Children (both the newly diagnosed patients and subsequent admissions) for the period from 1985-1995 were examined. The Bustamante Hospital for Children is a children’s hospital in Kingston, Jamaica. It was established in 1963 and it serves approximately 35,887 outpatients and 70,331 casualties per year. It has 283 including 5 intensive care unit beds (12).

The information which was collected included the basic demographic data, the pattern of the admissions, the reasons for the admissions, the existing picture or previous history of an infectious disease, the immunization status and the family history of diabetes mellitus. The patients were placed in three broad categories according to their ages: 0-3 years, 4-7 years and 8-12 years.

Results

77, 679 admissions were recorded at the Bustamante Hospital for Children between 1985 and 1995. Approximately 0.11% of these were for type 1 diabetes mellitus. One-half (50.0%) of the latter was between ages 8-12 years old; while 37.5% and 12.5% were recorded for the 4-7 years and the 0-3 years age groups respectively (Table/Fig 1).

In the overall diabetic population, 62.5% were females as compared to their male counterparts (37.5%). Three-quarters (75.0%) of the patients had an existing or a previous history of an infectious disease and 68.8% were fully immunized, while 31.3% had no record of being immunized. Just under two-thirds (62.5%) of the total diabetic population had a history of diabetes mellitus within the immediate family.

Discussion

The relatively low prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus which was observed in this preliminary study was consistent with the results of scientifically organized international studies (13). These have shown that it was unknown or rare in certain groups and that the highest rates occurred in Caucasian populations.

Type 1 diabetes accounts for almost all the diabetes cases in children who are less than 10 years of age (14). The hospitalization of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus results in high expenditures which amount to 63-80% of the total direct costs (15). Icks et al., found that the diabetic children and adolescents in Germany had an approximately three times higher hospitalization risk and three times more hospital stay than the age-matched non-diabetic subjects in the general population (16). Amongst 650 type 1 diabetic children in Sydney, a majority of the admissions were due to the poor control of diabetes (17). High glycosylated haemoglobin levels and hypertension were identified by Moss et al., as the predictive factors for the hospitalization for 777 diabetic patients under the age of 30 years, who lived in Wisconsin, United States (18). Reducing hospitalization is a main goal in the structured treatment of childhood diabetes, and it is a major outcome indicator in the diabetes quality management (19), (20).

The high incidence which was seen in the 8-12 years age group concurred with the results of a majority of population studies (13). These had demonstrated age peaks in the clinical presentation of type 1 diabetes mellitus, one of a particular magnitude which occurred in the 10-13 years age group (21). In a study which was done by Icks et al., of the 5,874 diabetic patients from 61 paediatric centers who were between 1 and 19 years of age, who were treated in 1997, 52% were males. In our study, 62.5% of the diabetic patients were females (16). Lipton et al., examined the risk factors for 216 African-American and Latino children who were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus, who were under the age of 18 years, over a 6 year period and found that females were twice as likely to be hospitalized as males (22). In California, a study which was done by Cohn et al., found increased hospitalization rates among young girls as compared to boys in a cohort of 2,889 type 1 diabetic children who were aged 0-18 years during 1991 (23). These authors suggested that the underlying cause may be biological or behavioural (24).

The high incidence of the existing picture or a history of infectious diseases within our diabetic population is not unusual. Epidemiological studies provide circumstantial evidence for a possible causative role of viral infections in type 1 diabetes mellitus (24). Among the viruses that have been implicated are rubella, mumps and human coxsackie virus B4. Experiments which were done by using animal models support the possible aetiological role of certain viruses in the genetically susceptible host (25),(26). Yang et al;reported that infectious diseases are associated with a large and transient increase in the risk of type 1 diabetes in paediatric patients during 42 days after the infection (26).

Type 1 diabetes is preceded by autoimmunity against the insulin-producing islet β-cells [27,28]. The development of islet autoantibodies and type 1 diabetes is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors, and the detection of islet autoantibodies in members of the affected families helps in identifying a minority of the individuals who have a markedly elevated risk of type 1 diabetes (29). In a study which was done by Tulloch-Reid, which examined the prevalence of diabetes and other autoantibodies in patients with recently diagnosed youth onset diabetes in Jamaica, GAD65 was found to be the most common diabetes-associated autoantibody in patients with type 1A diabetes (30). Children who had a first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes were at the highest risk for young-onset type 1diabetes (28).

There was a reported genetic predisposition in approximately two-thirds of the type 1 diabetic patients in this study. Family studies have shown the existence of strong genetic components in type 1 diabetes mellitus as well as in type 2 diabetes mellitus (31). The susceptibility in type 1 diabetes mellitus is conferred by the genes in the HLA-D region of the major histocompatibility complex on chromosome (32). The genes in this complex control the immune responses. It is believed that an individual inherits a susceptibility to develop either type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus and that one or more non-generic and presumably environmental factors can eventually precipitate the overt clinical disease.

Conclusion

It appears that one in every thousand children who were admitted at this institution had type 1 diabetes mellitus, and that girls between the ages of 8 and12 years were more at risk. The reduction in the hospital admissions of paediatric diabetic patients in Jamaica and the cost of diabetes care are of critical importance because of the increasing health care expenditures and the incidence rates of childhood diabetes. Further studies could examine the reasons for which the type 1 diabetic patients are hospitalized and the length of the hospital stay.

Acknowledgement

We gratefully acknowledge the kind assistance of Ms M. Cross, T. Genus, Dr. L. Gabay and the staff in the Records Office at the Bustamante Hospital for Children who assisted in collecting the data. Also, the statisticians who helped us with the analysis of the data. Finally, Ms. T. Smith who typed the manuscript.

References

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The statistical Institute of Jamaica: Demographic Statistics. Kingston, Jamaica, The Statistical Institute of Jamaica, 2008. Available at: http://statinja.gov.jm/EndofYearPopulationbyAgeandSex2008.aspx.
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Fagot-Campagna A. Emergence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in children: epidemiological evidence. J Paediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2000;13(suppl 6):1395-402.
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Pinhas-Hamiel O, Zeitler P. The global spread of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents. J Pediatr. 2005;146:693-700.
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Fraser de Llado TE, González de Pijem L, Hawk B. Incidence of IDDM in children who live in Puerto Rico. The Puerto Rican IDDM Coalition. Diabetes Care 1998;21(5):744-6.
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Cooper RS, Rotimi CN, Kaufman JS, Owoaje EE, Fraser H, Forrester T, et al. Prevalence of NIDDM among populations of the African diaspora. Diabetes Care 1997;20(3):343-8.
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Wilks R, Rotimi C, Bennett F, McFarlane-Anderson N, Kaufman JS, Anderson SG, et al. Diabetes in the Caribbean: results of a population survey from Spanish Town, Jamaica. Diabet Med. 1999;16(10):875-83.
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Ragoobirsingh D, Lewis-Fuller E, Morrison EY. The Jamaican Diabetes Survey. Diabetes Care. 1995;18(9):1277-9.
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Tulloch-Reid MK, Boyne MS, Smikle MF, Choo-Kang EG, Parkes RH, Wright-Pascoe RA, Barton EN, Wilks RJ, Williams DE. Clinical and laboratory features of youth onset type 2 diabetes in Jamaica. West Indian Med J. 2010;59(2):131-8.
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Gray A, Fenn P, McGuire A. The cost of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in England and Wales. Diabet Med. 1993;12:1068-76.
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Olsson J, Persson U, Tollin C, Nilsson S, Melander A. Comparison of the excess costs of care and production losses because of the morbidity in diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 1994;17:1257-63.
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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Diabetes Fact Sheet: general information and national estimates on diabetes in the United States, 2011. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2011.
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Icks A, Rosenbauer J, Haastert B, Giani G. Hospitalization among diabetic children, adolescents and non-diabetic control subjects: a prospective population-based study. Diabetologia. 2001;44(Suppl 3):B87-92.
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Sutton DL, Greenacre P, Howard NJ, Cowell CT, Silink M. Patterns of hospitalisation in a paediatric diabetes clinic in Sydney. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 1989; 7(4):271-6.
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Moss SE, Klein R, Klein BE. Risk factors for the hospitalization in people with diabetes. Archives of Internal Medicine. 1999;159(17):2053-7.
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Chiarelli F, Verrotti A, Di Ricco L, De Martino M, Morgese G. Approaches to the quality of the control in diabetes care. Horm Res. 1998;50:41-7.
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International Society of Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes: Consensus Guidelines for the Management of Insulin-Dependent (Type I) Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) in Childhood and Adolescents. London, Freund Publishing, 1995.
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Spencer KM, Cudworth AG. The aetiology of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. In: Mann, J. I. et al, ed., Diabetes in epidemiological perspective. Edinburg, Churchill Livingstone, 1983;99-121.
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Lipton RB, Zierold KM, Drum ML, Klein-Gitelman M, Kohrman AF. Re-hospitalization after the diagnosis of diabetes varies by gender and socioeconomic status in the urban African-American and Latino young people. Pediatr. Diabetes 2002;3(1):16-22.
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Cohn BA, Cirillo PM, Wingard DL, Austin DF, Roffers SD. Gender differences in the hospitalizations for IDDM among adolescents in California, 1991. Implications for prevention. Diabetes Care. 1997;20(11):1677-82.
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Cudworth AG. Gorsuch AN. Autoimmunity and viruses in Type I (insulin-independent) diabetes. In: Ellenberg, M. and Rifken, H., ed. Diabetes Mellitus: Theory and practice, 3rd ed. New York, Medical Examination Publishing Co. Inc., 1983;505-17.
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Tables and Figures
[Table / Fig - 1]
DOI and Others

Date of Submission: Nov 30, 2011
Date of Peer Review: Dec 06, 2011
Date of Acceptance: Feb 21, 2012
Date of Publishing: Jun 22, 2012

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