Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Dr Mohan Z Mani

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On Sep 2018




Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."



Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



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Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
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Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."



Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




Dr. Arunava Biswas

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Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011
Anuradha

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.


Dr. Anuradha
E-mail: anuradha2nittur@gmail.com
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Dentistry
Year : 2012 | Month : February | Volume : 6 | Issue : 1 | Page : 142 - 144

Stem Cell Therapy – A Newhope For Dentist

K.Saraswathi Gopal, Arathy Manohar Lankupalli

1. Professor and HOD, Department of Oral Medicine And Radiology, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College, Chennai, India. 2. P.G.Student Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College, Chennai, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. k. Saraswathi Gopal Professor And Hod, Department
Of Oral Medicine And Radiology, Meenakshi Ammal Dental
College, Chennai.

Abstract

While the regeneration of a lost tissue is known to mankind for several years, it is only in the recent past that research on regenerative medicine/dentistry has gained momentum and eluded the dramatic yet scientific advancements in the field of molecular biology. The growing understanding of biological concepts in the regeneration of oral/dental tissues coupled with experiments on stem cells is likely to result in a paradigm shift in the therapeutic armamentarium of dental and oral diseases culminating in an intense search for “biological solutions to biological problems.” Stem cells have been successfully isolated from variety of human tissues including orofacial tissues. Initial evidence from pioneering studies has documented the likely breakthrough that stem cells offer for various life-threatening diseases that have so far defeated modern medical care. The evidence gathered so far has propelled many elegant studies exploring the role of stem cells and their manifold dental applications. This review takes you on a sojourn of the origin of stem cells, their properties, characteristics, current research, and their potential applications. It also focuses on the various challenges and barriers that we have to surmount before translating laboratory results to successful clinical applications heralding the dawn of moderan dentistry.

Keywords

Dental pulp stem cell (DPSC), regeneration, scaffolds, stem cells, Periodontal regeneration, Repair and regeneration of bone in craniofacial defects, Whole tooth regeneration, Regeneration of damaged coronal dentin and pulp

Introduction
The sojourn of science has unraveled and understood that the secret of life lies in the “DNA,” thanks to Sir James Watson and Crick for their epoch making a historic discovery. In our endeavor to demystify the DNA, we have realized that scientific discoveries in cellular, developmental, and molecular biology have truly revolutionized our collective understanding of the biological processes that could greatly impact and dramatically change our lives in the future. In the new millennium, where biology and biotechnology have replaced chemistry, we are exploring “biological solutions to biological problems.” Owing to the extraordinary advances taking place in the field of cellular and molecular biology, we are on the verge of a paradigm shift, evolving from offering simple mechanical care to consider biological solutions to health promotion, risk assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and even prognosis. Although stem cell technology is just emerging, the regeneration of body parts is hardly a new concept. The regenerative capability of a living creature was recorded as early as 330 BC, when Aristotle observed that a lizard could grow back the lost tip of its tail. Since then, there have been slow but steady attempts at understanding the regenerative capabilities of human being and it is only in the last decade that we have seen an information explosion in the area of stem cell research. Stem cells are likely to revolutionize the entire health care delivery. The time is certainly ripe for all of us to familiarize ourselves with the following: what are stem cells, their characteristics, their potential applications, current research translating to therapy, and possible barriers of its application from the bench to the bedside/chair. What are Stem Cells and their Characteristics ? They are unspecialized cells with an extraordinary ability to self-renew, capable of differentiating into one or more specialized cell types Case Report playing a crucial role in homeostasis and tissue repair. When called into action following an injury, a stem cell self-renews - undergoes cell division and gives rise to one daughter stem cell and one progenitor cell. A progenitor cell is an intermediate cell type formed before it achieves a fully differentiated state. It is regarded as committed to differentiating along a particular cellular developmental pathway of stem cells:
Stem cell ---> Stem cell + Progenitor cell ---> Differentiated cell
Based on their origin, stem cells are categorized either as embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or as postnatal stem cells/somatic stem cells/ adult stem cells (ASCs).
Characteristics
1. Totipotency: generate all types of cells including germ cells (ESCs).

2. Pluripotency: generate all types of cells except cells of the embryonic membrane.
3. Multipotency: differentiate into more than one mature cell (MSC).
4. Self-renewal: divide without differentiation and create everlasting supply.
5. Plasticity: MSCs have plasticity and can undergo differentiation. The trigger for plasticity is stress or tissue injury which upregulates the stem cells and releases chemoattractants and growth factors.
Among the types of differentiation are:
1. Direct differentiation: a specific type of cell in a special niche developed in a multistep unidirectional pathway (e.g., MSCs differentiating into osteoblasts/fibroblasts).
2. Transdifferentiation: direct conversion of one cell type to another different cell type (e.g., blood cells into brain cells and vice versa).
3. Dedifferentiation: a unipotent stem cell becoming a multipotent one.
4. Cell fusion: a stem cell fusing with a somatic cell resulting in another lineage (e.g., ESCs fuse in vitro with HSCs and neuronal cells).
Embryonic stem cells
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are derived from embryos that are 2-11 days old called blastocysts. They are best grown from supernumerary embryos obtained from in vitro fertilization centers. They are totipotent - cells virtually capable of differentiating into any type of cell including the germ cell. ESCs are considered immortal as they can be propagated and maintained in an undifferentiated state indefinitely. These stem cells have the highest potential to regenerate and repair diseased tissue and organs in the body. However, the therapeutic benefit of ESCs is bogged by a controversy owing to the belief that the process of extraction of stem cells from an embryo destroys the embryo itself and some view this as taking life, thereby, raising moral and ethical concerns (1),(2). Further, it is difficult to control the growth and differentiation of the embryonic stem cell posing risk of tumorogenicity and teratoma formation. While research is on to overcome some of these shortfalls as of now, ESCs are not so far used therapeutically and have only remained an excellent platform for research.
Adult stem cells
Adult stem cells are found in most adult tissues. They are multipotent - capable of differentiating into more than one cell type but not all cell types. The plasticity of an adult stem cell is described as its ability to expand beyond its potential irrespective of the parent cell from which it is derived (3). For example, dental pulp stem cells not only develop into tooth tissue but also have the ability to differentiate into neuronal tissue. Depending on their origin, adult stem cells can be further classified as haemopoetic stem cells (HSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). HSCs are obtained either from cord blood or peripheral blood. MSCs are those that originate from the mesoderm layer of the foetus and in the adult reside in a variety of tissues such as the bone marrow stem cells (BMSCc), limbal stem cells, hepatic stem cells, dermal stem cells, etc. Stem cells have also been isolated from orofacial tissues which include adult tooth pulp tissue, pulp tissue of deciduous teeth, periodontal ligament, apical papilla, and buccal mucosa. Gronthos et al. have isolated stem cells from adult human dental pulp (DPSCs) that exhibit a similar immunophenotype to bone marrow stem cells. Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) represent a unique population of multipotent stem cells that are easily accessible and are more immature in the cell hierarchy than the adult pulp stem cells (4). Using a similar methodology, multipotent stem cells from the human periodontal ligament (PDLCs) have also been described (5). Recently, a new population of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) residing in the apical papilla of incompletely developed teeth (SCAP) have been isolated and demonstrated in elegant studies (6),(7),(8). Potential Applications in Dentistry. The regenerative potential of adult stem cells obtained from various sources including dental tissues has been of interest for clinicians over the past years and most research is directed toward achieving the following:
• Regeneration of damaged coronal dentin and pulp
• Regeneration of resorbed root, cervical or apical dentin, and repair perforations
• Periodontal regeneration
• Repair and replacement of bone in craniofacial defects
• Whole tooth regeneration.
Regeneration of damaged coronal dentin and pulp
To this date, no restorative material has been able to mimic all physical and mechanical properties of tooth tissue. Furthermore, we have not been successful in providing an ideal solution to certain situations, such as an immature tooth with extensive coronal destruction and reversible pulpitis. If the regeneration of tooth tissue is possible in these situations, it facilitates physiologic dentin deposition that forms an integral part of the tooth thereby restoring structural integrity, minimizing interfacial failure, microleakage, and other consequent complications. Similarly, young permanent teeth that require apexogenesis or apexification are the perfect candidates for the regeneration of pulp as they allow completion of both vertical and lateral root development, improving the long-term prognosis. However, pulp regeneration in fully formed teeth may not be of great benefit, although there is sufficient evidence to say that a restored vital tooth serves longer than a root-canal-treated one.Pulp tissue regeneration involves either delivery of autologous/ allogenic stem cells into the root canals or implantation of the pulp that is grown in the laboratory using stem cells. Both these techniques will have advantages and certain limitations that need further research. A landmark study conducted by Gronthoset al. demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo in animals that dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were capable of forming ectopic dentin and associated pulp tissue.
Periodontal regeneration
Regenerating the periodontium has always been a high priority in craniofacial regenerative biology. Due to the complex structure of the periodontium (consisting of hard and soft tissues), its complete regeneration has always remained a challenge. All the current regenerative techniques such as autologous bone grafts, allografts, or alloplastic materials have limitations and cannot be used in all clinical situations. Therefore, a cell-mediated bone regeneration technique will be a viable therapeutic alternative. Kawaguchi et al. demonstrated that the transplantation of ex vivo expanded autologous MSCs can regenerate new cementum, alveolar bone, and periodontal ligament in class III periodontal defects in dogs. Going a step further, periodontal ligament cells cultured in vitro were successfully reimplanted into periodontal defects in order to promote periodontal regeneration by Hasegawa et al. A subsequent study by the same group reported a similar approach in humans. This study reported firm evidence that stem cells can be used to regenerate a tissue as complex as the periodontium.
Repair and regeneration of bone in craniofacial defects
Craniofacial bone grafting procedures rely on autologous bone grafting, devitalized allogenic bone grafting (using bone from bone bank), and natural/synthetic osteoconductive biomaterials. Autologous bone grafting is limited by donor site morbidity and allogenic bone is often destroyed soon. A long-term outcome using biomaterials relies on their ability to encourage local cells to completely regenerate a defect and results are often not encouraging. If stem cells can be harvested in a scaffold and transplanted into a defect to regenerate the lost tissue, it can alleviate a lot of complications associated with the traditional techniques. Abukawa et al. used a novel scaffold design with a new fabrication protocol to generate an autologous tissue engineered construct which was used to repair a segmental mandibular defect.
Whole tooth regeneration
A therapeutic option that was unthinkable a few years ago seems an achievable goal today. Even to this day, the replacement of missing teeth has limitations. Although, implants are a significant improvement over dentures and bridges, their fundamental limitation is the lack of natural structural relationship with the alveolar bone (absence of periodontal ligament). They rely on direct integration of bone on tooth surface which is indeed an unnatural relationship as compared with the natural tooth. Further, they are also associated with a lot of esthetic, functional, and surgical limitations that affect their prognosis. Nakao et al. recently engineered teeth ectopically and transplanted them into an anthropicsite in a mouse jaw.

Conclusion

Stem cells derived from all sources hold immense medical promises. Stem cell therapies have virtually unlimited medical and dental applications. While there are several barriers that need to be broken down before this novel therapy can be translated from lab to clinics, it is certain that the future is going to be exciting for all of us. We have moved on from the surgical model of care to the medical model and are likely to move onto the biological model of care. The need of the hour is high-quality research coupled with collaboration between basic scientists and the clinicians. A team effort engaging the expertise of the molecular biologists, immunologists, biomaterial scientists, cell biologists, matrix biologists, and practicing dental surgeons is crucial in attaining the desired goal. Stem cell therapy is no longer science fiction. Recent developments in the technique of stem cell isolation and expansion together with advances in growth factor biology and biodegradable polymer constructs have set a stage for successful tissue engineering of tooth/tooth-related tissues. Stem cell therapy has brought in a lot of optimistic hope amongst researchers, doctors, and not to forget the patients who are the chief supportive and beneficiary of this innovation.

References

1.
Evans MJ, Kaufman MH. Establishment in culture of pluripotent cells from mouse embryos. Nature 1981;292:154-6
2.
Keller GM. In vitro differentiation of embryonic stem cells. CurrOpin Cell Biol 1995;7:862-9.
3.
Fortier LA. Stem cells, classification, controversies and clinical applications. Vet Surg 2005;34:415-23.
4.
Gronthos S, Mankani M, Brahim J, GehronRobey PG, Shi S. Postnatal human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). 2000.
5.
Miura M, Gronthos S, Zhao M, Lu B, Fischer LW, Robey PG, et al. SHED. Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth. ProcNatlAcadSci USA 2003;100:5807-54.
6.
Seo B, Miura M, Gronthos S, Bartold PM, Batouli S, Brahim J, et al. Investigation of multipotent postnatal stem cells from human periodontal ligament. Lancet 2004;364:149-55.
7.
Sonoyama W, Liu Y, Fang D, Yamaza T, Seo BM, Zhang C, et al. Mesenchymal stem cell mediated functional tooth regeneration in Swine. PLoS One 2006;1:e79.
8.
Sonoyama W, Liu Y, Yamaza T, Tuan RS, Wang S, Shi S, et al. Characterization of the apical papilla and its residing stem cells from human immature permanent teeth: Pilot study. J Endod 2008;34:166-71.

DOI and Others

ID: JCDR/2012/2985:1855

FINANCIAL OR OTHER COMPETING INTERESTS: NONE.

Date of Submission: Jul 28, 2011
Date of Peer Review: Sep 12, 2011
Date of Acceptance: Dec 22, 2011
Date of Publishing: Feb 15, 2012

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