Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri

"The Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) has been in operation since almost a decade. It has contributed a huge number of peer reviewed articles, across a spectrum of medical disciplines, to the medical literature.
Its wide based indexing and open access publications attracts many authors as well as readers
For authors, the manuscripts can be uploaded online through an easily navigable portal, on other hand, reviewers appreciate the systematic handling of all manuscripts. The way JCDR has emerged as an effective medium for publishing wide array of observations in Indian context, I wish the editorial team success in their endeavour"

Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri
Faculty, Pediatric Medicine
Super Speciality Paediatric Hospital and Post Graduate Teaching Institute, Noida
On Sep 2018

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On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
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I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

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Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
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Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

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Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
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Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Important Notice

Case report
Year : 2012 | Month : September | Volume : 6 | Issue : 7 | Page : 1284 - 1285

An Atypical Outsized Lateral Circumflex Femoral Artery and Its Clinical Implications

Ashwini S. Shetty, Shetty Santosh, Rakesh G., Narendra Pamidi, Raghu Jetti

1. Department of Anatomy, Yenepoya Medical College, Yenepoya University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India. 2. Karnataka Ayurveda Medical College, Mangalore, Karnataka, India. 3. Department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, International Centre, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India. 4. Department of Anatomy, Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India. 5. Department of Anatomy, Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Raghu Jetti
Department of Anatomy,
Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal campus),
Manipal University, Manipal, 576104.
Karnataka, India.
Phone: 91-820-2922635; Fax: 91-820-2571905.


The knowledge on the arterial variations of the lower extremity is extremely important for the vascular surgeons and the interventional radiologists. These variations may not endanger the life of the patients and they are usually subclinical and are found only during surgeries, autopsies and dissections. These variations may be the sources of bleeding at times. The variations which involve the femoral, profunda femoris and the circumflex femoral arteries are important in vascular reconstructive surgeries, in surgical interventions for embolism, catheterization procedures and in raising skin grafts with pedicles. The variations of the lateral circumflex femoral artery are very much useful in making the anterolateral thigh flaps. Hence, here we are reporting a rare case of an unusual size of the lateral circumflex femoral artery which arose from the femoral artery.The lateral circumflex femoral artery did not pass between the two divisions of the femoral nerve, its branches and termination were found to be normal.


Femoral artery, Lateral circumflex Femoral artery, Dlinical significance

The Lateral Circumflex Femoral Artery (LCFA) is a branch of the profunda femoris artery. It passes laterally between the anterior and the posterior divisions of the femoral nerve. The artery ends by dividing into the ascending, transverse and the descending branches. The ascending branch anastomoses with the superior gluteal and the deep circumflex iliac arteries, and it supplies the greater trochanter, the head and the neck of the femur. The descending branch anastomoses with the lateral superior genicular branch and it takes part in the anastomosis around the knee joint. The transverse branch forms the cruciate anastomosis (1). The LCFA plays a pivotal role in the anterolateral thigh flaps and in the tensorfascialatamyocutaneous flaps. The variations of this artery and its branches are very important for plastic surgeons (1). The LCFA arose from the femoral artery in 81.25% patients and from the femoral artery is 18.75% patients in the Indian population (2).

Case Report

During the regular dissection classes which were held for first year medical students, an embalmed male cadaver which was 50 years of age showed an abnormal size and origin of the LCFA in the right lower extremity. The LCFA arose from the lateral aspect of the femoral artery, proximal to the origin of the profunda femoris artery, one cm below the inguinal ligament (Table/Fig 1). The artery was 0.25cm in size when it was measured at its origin and then the LCFA passed downwards, parallel to the femoral artery. The diameter of the LCFA was unusually large. It was almost close to the diameter of the profunda femoris artery and the LCFA did not pass between the divisions of the femoral nerve. It gave ascending, transverse and descending branches and in addition to these, it gave several muscular branches which supplied the thigh muscles.The medial circumflex femoral artery arose from the profoundfemoris artery, it was normal in its course, size and length. The other lower extremity showed a normal course, size and length of the LCFA.


The arterial variations of the lower limb, especially the femoral artery, has gained popularity recently, because of its close association with the repair of femoral hernias and because of its common use in coronary angiographies. Several variations of the femoral artery and the profunda femoris artery had been reported in the past, such as the duplication of the profunda femoris artery and the abnormal course of the profunda femoris, which passed in front of the femoral vein (3). Here, we are reporting the abnormal origin, course and the size of the lateral circumflex femoral artery. Vazquez et al., (4) studied 221 embalmed cadavers and classified the patterns of the circumflex femoral arteries into type 1: both the circumflex arteries arise from the profunda femoris artery. Type 1a: the origin of the medial circumflex femoral artery (MCFA) is more proximal than that of the LCFA. Type 1b: the origin of the LCFA is proximal to that of the MCFA. Type 1c: both the arteries arise fromthe common trunk. In type 2, one of the arteries arises from the femoral artery and the other one arises from the profunda femoris artery. In type 2a: the MCFA arises from the femoral artery and in the type 2b, the LCFA arises from the femoral artery. In type 3, both the arteries arise from the femoral artery. In their study, Samarawickrama et al. (5) found the origin of the LCFA to be from the profunda femoris artery in 92.3% of the population, which was similar to that in the Turkish population (77.3%) (6).The arteries of the lower limb develop from the axis artery, which is derived from the fifth lumbar artery. In the developmental process, some of the channels regress and some of them enlarge and form a definitive arterial pattern. The persistence of the channels that are supposed to disappear, lead to various vascular anomalies (7),(8),(9).

The arterial variations of the lower limb, especially the femoral vessels, are very much vital for surgeons during femoral hernia repair and surgeries which are done in the femoral triangle (4). These kinds of variations are very important for interventional radiologists during procedures like angiography, Colour Doppler and digital substraction angiography. They may complicate arteriectomies, embolectomies and thromboendatherectomies in cases of atherosclerosis, which are most commonly seen in the lower limb vessels (10),(11),(12). As the lateral circumflex femoral artery is very large and unusual in size, it may complicate the procedures of coronary angiography and stent procedures, since the femoral artery was the choice for those procedures. As the artery is big, it may carry a significant amount of blood to the femoral neck and to the muscles and the skin over the thigh. It has the advantage of raising the anterolateral thigh flap and since the blood supply is more, there will be less chances of flap necrosis. The anterolateral thigh flap is the most preferred choice in reconstructive surgeries (13). Hence in conclusion, the LCFA is an important branch of the profunda femoris artery and its variations need great attention from the academicians and clinicians.


Standring S. Gray`s anatomy. The Anatomical Basis of the Clinical Practice. 40th edition. Spain: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2008; 1380.
Prakash, Kumari J, Kumar Bhardwaj A, Jose B A, Kumar Yadav S, Singh G. Variations in the origins of the profunda femoris and the medial and the lateral femoral circumflex arteries: a cadaver study in the Indian population. Rom J Morphol Embryol 2010, 51 (1): 167-70.
Sahin B, Bilgic S. Two rare arterial variations of the deep femoral artery in newborns. Surg Radiol Anat 1998, 20(3):233-235.
Vazquez MT, Murillo J, Maranillo E, Parkin I, Sanudo J. The patterns of the circumflex femoral arteries revisited. Clin Anat 2007; 20: 180-85.
Samarawickrama MB, Nanayakkara BG, Wimalagunarathna KWR, Nishantha DG, Walawage UB. The branching pattern of the femoral artery at the femoral triangle: a cadaver study. Galle Medical Journal 2009; Vol 14, no 1: 31-34.
Uzel M, Tanveli E, Yildirim M. An anatomical study on the origins of the lateral circumflex femoral artery in the Turkish population. Folia Morphol (Warsz) 2008; 67(4):226-30.
Lippert H, Pabst R. The Arterial Variations in Man: Their Classifications and Frequencies. Bergmann Munchen 1985; 54-61.
Sahn DJ, Goldenberg SJ, Allen HD, Valdes-Cruz LM, Canale JM, Lanje L, et al. A new technique for the noninvasive evaluation of the femoral arterial and the venous anatomies before and after percutaneous cardiac catheterizations in children and infants. Am J Cardiol 1982; 49:349-55.
Sanudo JR, Roig M, Rogrigues A, Ferreira B, Domenec JM. The rare origins of the obturator inferior epigastric and the medial circumflex femoral arteries from a common trunk. J Anat 1993; 183: 161-63.
Bozer YA, Guray II. Vascular diseases and surgery, Ankara: Hacettepe University Publications. 1984.
Dear U. General Surgery, Istanbul, Turkey, Bayda.1983.
Linder HH, Clinical anatomy. New York, USA: Prentice Hall International Inc. 1989.
Tansatit T, Wanidchapholoi S, Sanguansit P. The anatomy of the lateral circumflex femoral artery in the anterolateral thigh flap. J Med Assoc Thai 2008; 91(9): 1404-09.

Tables and Figures
[Table / Fig - 1]
DOI and Others

ID: JCDR/2012/4235:2479

Date of Submission: Mar 05, 2012
Date of Peer Review: Jun 08, 2012
Date of Acceptance: Aug 09, 2012
Date of Publishing: Sep 30, 2012

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