Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 135862

AbstractMaterial and MethodsResultsDiscussionReferencesDOI and Others
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"

Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2012 | Month : September | Volume : 6 | Issue : 7 | Page : 1181 - 1183 Full Version

The Prevalence of Group A Beta Haemolytic Streptococcal Carriers Among School Children in Coimbatore, South India

Published: September 1, 2012 | DOI:
Dheepa Muthusamy, Appalaraju Boppe, Sivakami Prabalkumari Suresh

1. Associate Professor. 2. Professor and Head Department of Microbiology. 3. MBBS Student. PSG Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Centre, Peelamedu, Coimbatore- 641004, Tamil Nadu, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. M. Dheepa, M.D. (Microbiology),
Associate Professor, Department of Microbiology,
PSG Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Centre,
Peelamedu, Coimbatore- 641004, Tamil Nadu, India.
Phone: 9843009211


Background and Objectives:
Infections which are caused by the group A Streptococcus continue to be an important problem in India and other developing countries, therefore, a continued surveillance is imperative to monitor the epidemiological trends. The asymptomatic pharyngeal carriage of the Group A Streptococci (GAS) in children may lead to the spread of respiratory infections in the community. The data on the healthy GAS carriers in the community are therefore important. We carried out this pilot study to screen the school children in Coimbatore city, south India to detect the pharyngeal carriage of GAS.
Throat swabs were collected from a total of 255 children who were aged 8–11 years, from 2 schools in Coimbatore. The isolates of the beta haemolytic streptococci were serogrouped by agglutination tests, by using specific antisera.
Beta haemolytic streptococci were isolated from 27 samples out of the 255 asymptomatic children. The percentage of asymptomatic GAS carriers were 5.09 in our study.
The carriage rate of the beta haemolytic streptococci which are seen in children poses a threat to the community and it should be checked. Carrier rates which ranged from 2.3% to 34 % were reported from different parts of our country. A regular screening needs to be done to control the development of nonsuppurative sequelae such as acute rheumatic fever and post streptococcal glomerulonephritis, which are debilitating and difficult to treat.


Beta haemolytic streptococci, Children, Streptococcal carriers

INTRODUCTION The Group A Beta Haemolytic Streptococcus (GABHS) or Streptococcus pyogenes has remained a significant human pathogen for centuries. This organism causes a wide variety of infections in humans, which ranges from mild upper respiratory and skin infections, to severe suppurative and invasive conditions like necrotizing fascitits and toxic shock syndrome. One of major concern are the post-infectious sequelae like acute rheumatic fever and post streptococcal glomerulonephritis, which continue to occur worldwide despite the efforts which are by clinicians, scientists and public health officials to comprehend their pathogenesis and to devise methods of disease control (1). It has been estimated that approximately 7 sore throat episodes occur per child per year; with 13.5% of these being caused by the Group A Streptococcus (GAS) (2). The information on the occurrence of invasive streptococcal disease in India is limited. Although acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease have declined in many parts of the world, they continue to be a major cause of the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in India. Children are the major reservoirs of the Group A Streptococci, with recurrent episodes of pharyngitis, suppurative and nonsuppurative complications which are caused by GAS. The peak age incidence for the infections which are caused by GAS is between 5 and 15 years (3). They represent the pool from which adults with severe invasive disease acquire their infections. Infections which are caused by the Group A Streptococcus continue to be an important problem in India and in other developing countries. Therefore, a continued surveillance is imperative to monitor the epidemiological trends.

Material and Methods

A total of 255 children were enrolled in this study from 2 schools in Coimbatore, south India. After obtaining permission from the school authorities, an informed consent was sent to the parents of all the children who were included in the study. The consent explained about the study and the throat swabs which were intended to be taken from their children. Thus, an informed consent was obtained from the parents. A throat swab was taken by depressing the tongue and 2 swabs were passed well over the tonsils, the tonsillar fossa and over the posterior pharyngeal wall. The swabs were placed in sterile test tubes with the ends sticking outside to facilitate handling and they were immediately transported to the lab. They were then plated on 6% sheep blood agar. The plates were incubated at 37°C in CO2 and they were read after 24 hours and 48 hours. Gram staining and the catalase test were performed on the colonies which showed beta-haemolysis. Bacitracin sensitivity testing (0.04 units/disc) and CAMP (Christie, Atkins, Munch Peterson) test was done on all the samples which had beta-haemolytic Streptococci. Grouping was done on the bacitracin sensitive and the CAMP negative isolates by subjecting them to antigen extraction by the micronitrous acid extraction method and further by doing a co-agglutination technique (4). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed on blood agar by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method by using discs that were obtained from Hi-Media Laboratories Pvt Ltd, according to the CLSI standards. The antibiotics which were tested, included penicillin (10μg), erythromycin (15μg), linezolid(30μg), amikacin (30μg),vancomycin (30μg), gentamycin (10μg), cotrimoxazole (23.75/.25) and chloramphenicol (30μg).


Among the 255 students who were studied, 181 were females and 26 were males. The students belong to the age group of 8 to 11 years. 13 students (5.09%) were found to be group A betahaemolytic streptococcal carriers. The group comprised of three males and ten females. At the time of the study, none of the 13 children were found to have streptococcal sore throat symptoms. The prevalence of the Beta Haemolytic Streptococci (BHS) and the Group A Streptococci (GAS) among the 8-11 yrs old school children of both the sexes are depicted in (Table/Fig 1). 27 beta haemolytic gram positive cocci were isolated in culture out of the 255 samples. Of these, 5 isolates were identified as methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Of the remaining 22 isolates, 13 isolates were sensitive to bacitracin and they were CAMP negative, which were grouped as group A beta-haemolytic Streptococcus. These isolates were further confirmed by coagglutination technique using antisera which were obtained from Christian Medical College (CMC), Vellore. One was CAMP positive and hence it was identified as group B beta-haemolytic Streptococci or Streptococcus agalactciae. The rest of the 6 isolates were catalase negative, bacitracin resistant and CAMP negative, gram positive cocci in chains, which were grouped under the non-A and non-B betahaemolytic Streptococci. The remaining 2 isolates were bile esculin positive, sorbitol positive, their growth occurred on 6.5% Nacl and and they were identified as Enterococcus faecalis. The patterns of the various beta haemolytic gram positive cocci which were isolated in this study are shown in (Table/Fig 2). Antibiotic sensitivity testing was carried out on the entire group A beta-haemolytic Streptococcus carriers. All the strains were sensitive to penicillin, vancomycin, linezolid, cotrimoxazole and chloramphenicol. The antibiotic sensitivity testing revealed that three strains (23.07%) were erythromycin resistant, two strains (15.4%) were amikacin resistant and that one strain (7.7%) was gentamicin resistant. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the group A beta-haemolytic Streptococcus carriers which were tested are given in (Table/Fig 3).


The presence of group A streptococci in the upper respiratory tract may reflect either a true infection or a carrier state.The treatment and the prevention of dangerous complications in the group A beta haemolytic Streptococcal pharyngitis is of great importance. The healthy carriers of the group A beta hemolytic Streptococcus are the sources for bacterial dissemination which lead to disease and even to severe epidemics. According to different studies, the group A beta-haemolytic Streptococcus is more commonly seen in the pharynx of children as compared to that of adults. A cohort study from Pennsylvania reported a carrier rate of 15.5% among school going children, with a mean age of 9.6 years (3). In Tunisia, rheumatic fever remains an important health problem in children and a one year prospective study was conducted in 2 paediatric outpatient clinics, which showed Streptococcal strains in 12.9% of the controls and in 20.7% of the patients. The group A Streptococci had a frequency of 9% and 17.7% in the controls and in the patients respectively (5). A study which was conducted in Sweden revealed a carrier rate of 5.0% (6). The prevalence of beta-haemolytic Streptococcus in healthy individuals in Sweden was low [in children below the age of 3 years (1.9-7.1%) and in adults above 16 years (2.4-3.7%)] and the highest in the age group of 3-15 years (5.0-21.2%) (7). In India, the isolation rates of GAS in children with pharyngitis had ranged from 4.2% to 13.7%, which were comparable to the rates which were reported from the developed countries. The prevalence of the asymptomatic carriage of GAS in different parts of India has been reported to lie in the range of 11.2-34% (2). A study was conducted in Chennai, to determine the isolation rate and the biotypes of the group A Streptococci from the throat cultures of normal school children in south India. Among the 250 throat swabs which were collected from normal school going children who were aged between 5-15 years, GAS was isolated from 13 children (5.2%) (8). In another study which was done in Chennai, the percentage of the asymptomatic GAS carriers was found to be 8.4% (9) and in the district of Vellore, India, the carriage rate of GAS was found to be 2.3% (10). In our study, the carrier rate of invasive disease acquire the GAS infections. The results of our study highlighted the importance of regular surveillance programmes to keep the group A Streptococcus infections and their carriage in check. The children who were found to be carriers could be adequately treated with antibiotics. This would further facilitate the control and the development of nonsuppurative sequelae such as acute rheumatic fever and post streptococcal glomerulonephritis, which are debilitating and difficult to treat. the group A beta-haemolytic Streptococcus in young children was 5.09%. It correlated well with the findings of other studies which were done in south India and it also indicated that the percentage of the carrier rate was less as compared to that in northern India. In a study which was conducted in Iran, 28.5% were group A beta-haemolytic Streptococcus carriers among which 54.4% were males and 45.5% were females (11). [Table/Fig-4] shows the comparison of the group A Streptococci carrier rates throughout the world. The GAS which was isolated from carriers could cause active throat infections. GAS has also been reported to be found in the tonsillar epithelial cells in carriers, thus suggesting a reservoir status with the potential to cause reinfections. Among the commonly used antibiotics for the treatment of the betahaemolytic Streptococcus infections are Penicillin and its family. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) have recommended penicillin as the antibiotic of choice for children with sore throat which was caused by GABHS. Most of our isolates were sensitive to penicillin and vancomycin. Macrolides are not the first-line choice for treating Streptococcal infections except in the case of penicillin allergy. In our study, 3 strains (23.07%) were erythromycin resistant, which correlated with the findings of another study from Vellore, South India, which showed that the resistance to macrolides was increasing (12). Children with a peak age incidence between 5 and 15 years for infections which were caused by GAS, are the major reservoirs of GAS and are the target population for pharyngitis, as well as for the suppurative and non suppurative complications which are caused by GAS. They represent the pool from which adults with severe


Shet A, Kaplan E. Addressing the burden of the group A Streptococcal disease in India. Indian J Paediatrics 2004;71:41-48.
Nandi S, Kumar R, Ray P, Vohra H, Ganguly NK. Group A Streptococcal sore throat in a periurban population of northern India: a one-year prospective study. Bull World Health Organ 2001; 79 : 528-33.
Martin JM, Green M, Barbadora KA, Wald ER. Group A streptococci among the school-age children: The clinical characteristics and the carrier state. Paediatrics 2004:114;1212-19.
Christian Medical College and Hospital; Department of Clinical Microbiology. Myer’s and Koshi’s Manual of Diagnostic Procedures in Medical Microbiology and Immunology/Serology. Vellore (India), 2001; 55.
Mzoughi R, Bouallegue O, Selmi H, Ben Said H, Essoussi AS, Jeddi M. Group A streptococci in children with acute pharyngitis in Sousse, Tunisia. East Mediterr Health J 2004; 10 : 488-93.
Strömberg A, Schwan A, Cars O. The throat carrier rates of the betahaemolytic Streptococci among healthy adults and children. Scand J Infect Dis. 1988; 20,4:411-17.
Gunnarsson RK, Holm SE, Söderström M. The prevalence of betahaemolytic Streptococci in throat specimens from healthy children and adults. Implications for the clinical value of throat cultures. Scand J Prim Health Care.1997; 3:149-55.
Anbu M, Thangam M. Biotyping of the group A Streptococci which were isolated from normal school children in south India. Indian Journal for the Practising Doctor. 2005, 17-18.
Charmaine ACL, Swarna EJ, Thangam M. Pharyngeal carriage of the group A streptococci in school children in Chennai. Indian J Med Res. 2006;124: 195-98.
Koshi G, Benjamin V. Surveillance of the streptococcal infections in children in a south Indian community--a pilot survey. Indian J Med Res 1977; 66 : 379-88.
Nabipour F, Tayarzadeh M. Prevalence of the beta-haemolytic Streptococcus carrier state and its sensitivity to different antibiotics among the guidance-school children in Kerman-Iran. Am. J. Infectious Dis 2005; 1 (2): 128-31.
Brahmadathan KN, Anitha P, Gladstone P. The increasing resistance among the group A streptococci which caused tonsillitis in a tertiary care hospital in southern India. Clin Microbiol Infect.2005; 11 :335-37.

DOI and Others

ID: JCDR/2012/4091:2401


Date of Submission: Feb 02, 2012
Date of Peer Review: Apr 25, 2012
Date of Acceptance: Jul 13, 2012
Date of Publishing: Sep 30, 2012

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • Embase
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)