Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Super Speciality Paediatric Hospital and Post Graduate Teaching Institute, Noida
On Sep 2018




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Department of Dematolgy,
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Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018




Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."



Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



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Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018




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Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




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Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




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Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




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"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
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It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
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Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
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Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
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It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2012 | Month : May | Volume : 6 | Issue : 4 | Page : 602 - 604

A Descriptive Study of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice with regard to Voluntary Blood Donation among Medical Undergraduate Students in Pondicherry, India

R.S Bharatwaj, Vijaya K, P.Rajaram

1. M.D Community Medicine, Sri Lakshminarayana Institute Of Medical Sciences. 2. M.D, Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Sri Lakshminarayana Institute Of Medical Sciences. 3. DPH, Sri Lakshminarayana Institute Of Medical Science Dept of Community Medicine, Sri Lakshminarayana Institute Of Medical Sciences, Pondicherry, India.

Correspondence Address :
R.S Bharatwaj,
Asst Prof. Dept of Community Medicine,
Sri Lakshminarayana Institute of Medical Sciences,
Pondicherry, India - 605502.
Phone-09629834189
E-mail: resure2@yahoo.com

Abstract

Introduction: The ability to transfuse blood represents one of the great advances in modern medicine, which has made much of today’s surgeries safer and possible. Voluntary blood donors are the safest and the ideal sources of good quality blood. Inspiration among and participation of the student community is essential to make the “voluntary blood donation” movement a success.

Materials and Methods: A pretested, close ended questionnaire was administered to 104 randomly chosen students and their responses were further compiled and analyzed. Later, an interactive 2 hours session was organized, which gave information about the voluntary blood donation and which addressed all the issues which were a part of the questionnaire. At the end of the session, the willingness of the students in donating blood was again noted.

Results and Discussion: All the participants had an incomplete knowledge regarding the various aspects of voluntary blood donation. The participants who had a relatively better knowledge had parents with a significantly higher educational status. Only 1 of the participant had donated blood so far. Among the participants, 85% were willing to donate blood voluntarily. Those who were unwilling to donate stated fear and inconvenience as the reasons for their unwillingness. The short interactive session significantly enhanced the willingness to donate blood, among those who were initially unwilling.

Conclusion: Interactive awareness sessions on voluntary blood donation should be organized early after the college entry and opportunities for blood donation should be created for the students, which can greatly enhance the movement for “voluntary non-remunerated blood donation”, to ensure a good quality of blood and safe modern medical care.

Keywords

Blood donation, Voluntary, Awareness, Practice

INRODUCTION
“Safe blood starts with me, blood saves lives.” was the W.H.O theme for 2000 AD. Blood has always held a mysterious fascination for all and it is considered to be the living force of our body. Today, the use of whole blood is a well-accepted and a commonly employed measure without which many modern surgical procedures cannot be carried out (1). Human blood is an essential element of the human life and there are no substitutes for it (2). There is a considerable shortage of blood, even in large metropolises, with the supply being less than 50% of the requirement (3). Safe blood is a critical component in improving the health care and in preventing the spread of infectious diseases globally. Millions of lives are saved each year through blood transfusions, but yet the quality and the safety of blood transfusion is still a concern, particularly in the developing countries. The reason for this includes blood collection from unsafe donors, poor laboratory procedures and the inadequate testing of blood. Blood will be safe if there is a nationally coordinated blood transfusion service, collection of blood only from voluntary non-remunerated donors, testing of blood for transfusion transmissible infections and if there is transfusion of the right blood to the right patient through the appropriate clinical use of blood (4).

The need for blood is growing day by day as a result of the advancement in the clinical medicine. In terms of the need for blood transfusion, it is noted that in India, the death toll which iscaused by road accidents has increased due to the unavailability of blood transfusion services near the accident site (5). Voluntary, non-remunerated blood donation has been universally shown to be the cornerstone of safe blood (6). Truly speaking, voluntary blood donors are the bricks of the edifice which is called ‘blood transfusion’. College students, particularly from medical colleges, can be a very good source of quickly accessible, quality blood if they are motivated and are willing to be voluntary blood donors.

Objectives To find out the knowledge, attitude and the practice with regards to voluntary blood donations among medical undergraduate students.

Material and Methods

Of the 280 students of second and third MBBS at the Sri Lakshminarayana Institute of Medical Sciences which is located in Pondicherry, India, 104 were selected by simple random sampling by using the lots method. A pre-tested, close-ended KAP questionnaire which was designed based on the study objectives, was administered to the participants and the results were consolidated and tested for any statistical significance, where ever required by the tests, for obtaining the significance of the difference in the proportions. After the collection of the information, a shortinteractive awareness session was organized for the participants and their willingness to donate blood was again noted at the conclusion of the session.

Results

There were 49 male and 55 female students. The age of the participants ranged from 19 to 22 years, with a mean age of 20.4 years. All the participants had a very incomplete knowledge regarding the various aspects of voluntary blood donation. None of the participants was able to able to respond to the knowledge part of the questionnaire with 100% accuracy (questions like, who is a healthy donor, any age limitations for voluntary blood donation, etc). There was no significant difference between the males and females with regards to their knowledge on voluntary blood donation [Table /Fig-1] Only 37.5 % ( 39) of the participants responded to 60% or more of the questions correctly and among these, 48.7 %( 19) had parents with at- least a graduate qualification. Among those who responded to less than 60% questions correctly, only 15.3 %( 10) had parents with at- least a graduate qualification. The proportion of the parents with a graduate qualification was significantly higher among those participants who had a better knowledge about voluntary blood donation [Table/Fig-2] All the participants felt that voluntary blood donation was a noble act and they respected people who donated blood voluntarily. Only one among the 104 participants had donated blood so far and that was for a surgery of his relative. 85% (88) of the participants were willing to donate blood and 15% (13 females and 3 males) were unwilling to donate blood. Among those who were unwilling to donate blood, the proportion of females was higher. The reason for their unwillingness to donate blood was parental disapproval for all the 16 participants. Also, among the 13 females who were unwilling to donate, 10 had fear of pain and other side effects. All the 16 had parents with less than a graduate qualification. Among the 85% who were willing to donate blood, the reasons for not having donated blood so far were lack of family support (M-19.53%, F-19.04%), lack of opportunity (M-50%, F-54.76%), indifference ( M-21.73%, F-7.14%) and fear (M-8.6%, F-19.04%) [Table/Fig-3]. After the awareness session, only 3 students (2 females and 1 male) were unwilling to donate blood and they stated parental reasons. The overall increase in the willingness to donate blood increased from 85% to 97.1%. Between the male and female students, 33.33% of the females and 92.3% of the male students, who were initially unwilling to donate blood, became willing for voluntary blood donation. This change in the willingness between the male and female students was statistically significant (p<0.05).

Discussion

This study among the medical graduates, who are a very potential and accessible source of voluntary non-remunerated and safe blood by the virtue of its collectability by coordinated blood transfusion services, revealed that, parental education seemed to have an overall impact on the knowledge regarding blood donation among the students. Most of the students who were willing to donate blood, said that they had not donated blood because of the lack of an opportunity to do so. This finding has been corroborated by the findings of past studies (7). This shows that sufficient steps to involve students and to create opportunities for them to donate blood, is something that needs to be given due consideration, if we have to improve the voluntary collection of blood from them. In contrast to a previous study among the general population in India, where only 46% of the participants were willing to voluntarily donate blood (8) the present study found that among the medical students, the willingness to voluntarily donate blood was much higher (85%), which augurs well for the drive towards voluntary blood donation. As compared to a previous study among college students, wherein there were a high number of respondents with a negative attitude towards blood donation (9), in our study, we found that not even one of the students had a negative attitude. All of them felt that blood donation was a noble act. Thus, the attitude of the students in our study was positive towards blood donation. This study also revealed that the unwillingness to donate blood was more among the female students and the major reasons were fear and a perceived inconvenience which were associated with blood donation. This was corroborated by the results of a past study (10). There was a significantly higher transformation in the willingness to donate blood, among the male students as compared to the female students, as a result of the short awareness session. From thereasons which were given by the students, this may be attributed to a greater reliance on parental permission and the willingness on the part of the female students before they can make their decisions. This needs to be kept in mind when awareness sessions are planned, so as to produce the maximum impact. It is a proven fact that voluntary non-remunerated blood donation is the safest and the most ideal way for improving the quality of blood which is collected through the blood banking services across the country. The youth from medical colleges, who are a very potential group of readily available donors, have to be encouraged to participate voluntarily in the blood donation activities. In a medical college hospital, they are very much accessible to the teaching faculties as a part of their training program and this fact can be made use of, to include awareness sessions as a part of their regular training, right in the beginning of their course itself, so as to diffuse any doubts and misconceptions that the students may have regarding voluntary blood donation. Our study which found a lot of lack of information among the medical students, validates the need for such early awareness programs.

Conclusion

The knowledge on blood donation practices was lacking among the study participants. The fact that only 1 out of the 104 students had donated blood previously, indicates that the medical students, who are a very potential source for voluntary blood donations, have been poorly tapped. The educational background of their parents seems to have an impact on the students’ knowledge regarding blood donation and their willingness to donate blood. A lack of parental support and parental disapproval have been revealed as the major reasons for the unwillingness to donate blood among the participants. Even a single awareness session greatly improved the students’ readiness for voluntary blood donation. We conclude this study with the recommendation that all the college students should be given an interactive awareness session on voluntary blood donation as early as possible, following their college entry and that the right opportunities should be created for them to voluntarily donate blood. Also, this issue should be addressed in the parents’ meetings and their concerns shouldbe clarified, so as to ensure their support and encouragement for this noble service of voluntary blood donation. Avenues for creating parent-student combined interactive sessions to enhance joint participation and change in attitudes in a positive direction for promoting and supporting voluntary non-remunerated blood donation, need to be periodically organized and sustained.

Limitations of the study
The subjects were from only one medical college and hence, it may not be appropriate to project the results which we obtained, to the cohort of all the medical students.

Acknowledgement

We would like to express our appreciation to Mr Balamurugan M, Second MBBS student for his active involvement in data collection process.

References

1.
Zmijewski Chester M., Haesler Walter E. Blood Banking Science. New York: Appleton Century Croft; 1982.
2.
An action plan for blood safety. National AIDS control organization: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. 2003. Jul; 7.
3.
Management of blood transfusion services, WHO 1990.
4.
The World Health Organization 1211 Geneva 27, Blood safety and clinical technology progress 2000-2001.
5.
Gupta A. The status of blood banking in India. Health Millions. 2000 Mar–Apr;26(2):35–8.
6.
Blood Centres in South - East Asia. Available from:http://www.dialog. lk/corporate/media_mediaApril2003_2.html.
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Gilani I, Kayani ZA, Atique M. The knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) regarding blood donation which are prevalent in medical and paramedical personnel. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2007 Aug;17(8): 473-76.
8.
Shenga N, Pal R, Sengupta S. Behavior disparities towards blood donation in Sikkim, India. Asian J Transfusion Sci. 2008 July; 2(2): 56–60.
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Hosain GM, Anisuzzaman M, Begum A. The knowledge and attitude towards voluntary blood donation among Dhaka University students in Bangladesh. East Afr Med J. 1997;74:549–53.
10.
Juárez-Ocaña S, Pizaña-Venegas JL, Farfán-Canto JM, Espinosa- Acevedo FJ, Fajardo-Gutiérrez A. Factors that influenced the non donation of blood in the relatives of patients at a pediatric hospital. Gac Med Mex. 2001;137:315-22.

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ID: JCDR/2012/3715:0014

Date of Submission: Nov 25, 2011
Date of Peer Review: Nov 26, 2011
Date of Acceptance: Nov 29, 2011
Date of Publishing: May 31, 2012

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