Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Super Speciality Paediatric Hospital and Post Graduate Teaching Institute, Noida
On Sep 2018




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On Sep 2018




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Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
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Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




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"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



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Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
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Professor and Head
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Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




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Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




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Best regards,
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Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
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An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
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Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2011 | Month : December | Volume : 5 | Issue : 8 | Page : 1593 - 1597

Correlates of Overweight and Obesity Among Urban School Going Children of Nagpur City

Subhash B.Thakre, Sheetal P. Mohane, Suresh M. Ughade, Sushama S. Thakre, Suresh S. Morey, Arun Y. Humne

1. Associate professor, Preventive and Social Medicine, Government Medical College, Nagpur, India. 2. Tutor, Preventive and Social Medicine, Government Medical College, Nagpur, India. 3. Lecturer, Preventive and Social Medicine, Government Medical College, Nagpur, India. 4. Associate professor, Preventive and Social Medicine, Indira Gandhi Government Medical College, Nagpur, India. 5. Lecturer, Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Government Medical College, Nagpur, India. 6. Professor and Head Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Indira Gandhi Government Medical College, Nagpur, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Subhash B. Thakre
Plot. No.9,Swami Swarupanand Society,
Narendra Nagar, Ngpur-15, India.
Phone: 9822366532
E-mail : drsubhasht@rediffmail.com;
sushamathakre@rediffmail.com

Abstract

Introduction: Overweight and obesity during childhood are a matter of growing concern in India. Most individuals develop their eating and activity patterns during childhood. Obesity in children and adolescents is gradually becoming a major public health problem in many developing countries, including India. The objective of the present study is to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school children and to identify the factors which influenced childhood overweight and obesity.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out from July 2009 to January 2011 on school children who were aged between 5 and 16 years.
Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children was 9.00% and 5.5% respectively. Overall, the prevalence of overweight/obesity was 14.52%. The risk of overweight/obesity was significantly (p<0.0120) higher among children who belonged to the upper SES and to the age group of ≥ 10 years, who viewed television for ≥ 1 hour, who slept for only ≥ 7 hours (OR=1.87; 95% CI=1.87-2.53) and who used vehicles to go to school (OR=1.59 ;95%CI =1.14-2.24). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was significantly (p<0.0032) lower among children who swam, danced regularly (p<0.0353) and played outdoor games (p<0.0323) than their counterparts. Its association was found to be protective against overweight/ obesity. The risk of overweight /obesity was significantly higher among children who were non-vegetarians (OR=1.88; 95% CI=1.39-2.55, p<0.0001), who regularly consumed junk food (OR=2.54; 95% CI=1.82-3.53, p<0.0001), and in whom the calorie intake was more than the recommended daily allowances (OR=1.88; 95% CI=1.39-2.55, p<0.0001).
Conclusion: This study confirmed the findings of earlier studies which were carried out in the other parts of the country and it emphasized that regular physical exercise, regulated television viewing, and a healthy eating behaviour could contribute to control overweight and obesity.

Keywords

RMI, School children, Risk factors

How to cite this article :

Subhash B.Thakre, Sheetal P. Mohane, Suresh M. Ughade, Sushama S. Thakre, Suresh S. Morey, Arun Y. Humne. CORRELATES OF OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY AMONG URBAN SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN OF NAGPUR CITY. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research [serial online] 2011 December [cited: 2019 Nov 15 ]; 5:1593-1597. Available from
http://www.jcdr.net/back_issues.asp?issn=0973-709x&year=2011&month=December&volume=5&issue=8&page=1593-1597&id=1771

Introduction
Childhood obesity was considered as a problem in affluent countries. Today, this problem has started appearing even in developing countries (1). Globally, the prevalence of childhood obesity varies from over 30% in USA to less than 2% in sub- Saharan Africa (2). The national representative data for childhood obesity in India is unavailable. However, the available Indian studies have revealed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity in India was 3.1% to 29% and 0.73 % to 7% respectively (3),(4),(5),(6),(7),(8),(9),(10). Obesity in children and adolescents is gradually becoming a major public health problem in many developing countries, including India (11). 50-80% of the obese children will continue to be obese adults (12). However, whether or not obesity persists into adulthood, the obesity in childhood appears to increase the risk of subsequent morbidities (13). The transitions in the nutrition and lifestyle, e.g. the popularity of fast foods and soft drinks, a sedentary life style, lack of exercise, and computer use are the common trends which are adopted by children today (14). There is no published data on a representative sample from Nagpur on the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. With this background in mind, the present study was undertaken in the central part of Nagpur city to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school children who were aged between 5 and 16 years and to identify the factors which influenced childhood overweight/obesity.

Material and Methods

Study design and setting
The present cross sectional study was undertaken in the Tejaswini Vidya Mandir High School which is one of the private unaided schools in Nagpur city, Nagpur District, Maharashtra state..
Study population and study area
1524 students in the age group of 5-16 years, who were studying in class I-X, in private unaided schools (where the annual fees was more than Rs.10400) of an urban area of Nagpur were enlisted for the study.
Study period
This study was carried out from July 2009 to January 2011.
Sample size-sampling technique
Considering the prevalence of obesity of 3.3% as was reported in a pilot study, an alpha error of 5 per cent, an absolute allowable error 1 per cent and a non-response rate 10 per cent, the sample size was calculated as 1235. However, there were a total of 1524 students in the school. Hence, all the students were included in the study. The consecutive samples of all the1524 children were included in the study.
Instrument and technique The consent of the school authorities was obtained after explaining to them the objectives as well as the method of the study. A predesigned and pretested questionnaire was used to interview the study participants to elicit the information on their family characteristics like economic status, religion, education and occupation of the parents. Information on individual characteristics like age, sex, eating habits, and time which was spent for television viewing and outdoor games were also collected. In our study, we considered fast food consumption as “yes”, if the child was having fast food more than three times a week. Similarly, if the child regularly played outdoor and indoor games routinely for >30 min/day, we considered this characteristic as “yes.” The help of the school teacher was also taken if the child had any problem in explaining the father’s occupation. During the data collection, the class teachers were asked to accompany the students. After the interview, a SECA Weighing Machine and a SECA Measuring Scale with a board were use to measure the weight (nearest to 0.10 kg) and height (nearest to 0.5 cm) of each child by using standard procedures (15). The body mass index (BMI) was calculated as the weight in kilogram/height in meter2. Overweight and obesity were assessed by considering the BMI for a particular age and sex. Students who had a BMI for age-sex ≥ the 85th percentile to < the 95 percentile of the reference population were classified as overweight and who had a BMI for age-sex ≥ the 95th percentile of the reference population was classified as obese (16).
Statistical Analysis
The data were entered into an Excel 2007 Microsoft spreadsheet and were analyzed by using the Epi_Info (version 6.04) and the STRATA – 8 software packages. The continuous variables were presented as mean ± SD. The categorical variables were expressed in percentage. The Odds Ratio (OR) and the 95 per cent Confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated for each categorical risk factor. The associations were assessed by using the Chi-square test. For all the statistical tests, a p value of <0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

Results

A total of 1524 school children (52.56% boys and 47.44% girls) in the age group of 5-16 years, with a mean age of 10.12±2.89 years, were studied. A majority [1341 (88.0% )] of the mothers were educated beyond high school, and 1375 (90.22%) fathers were educated beyond high school. A majority [1204 (79.0%)] of the mothers were housewives. The fathers were mostly employed as skilled workers and professionals [1497(98.33%)]. The major religions of the study subjects were Hinduism and Buddhism [1417 (92.97%)]. No statistically significant difference was observed in both the groups in regards of the education of the mothers (more than high school or less than high school), the education of the fathers (more than high school or less than high school), the occupations of the mothers and fathers and the religions of the study subjects.[Table/Fig-2] gives the overall prevalence of overweight and obesity by gender among schoolchildren in Nagpur. The overall prevalence of overweight among the children was 9.00% and the prevalence of obesity was 5.5%. Overall, the prevalence of overweight/obesity was 14.52%. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was equal in boys and girls. In this study, no difference was observed by gender between overweight and obesity, and for overweight/obesity together. The mean BMI of boys and girls was (15.71±3.612)kg/m2 and (16.87±4.08)kg/m2 respectively. On doing univariate analysis, the risk of overweight/obesity was found to be significantly higher among children from the age group of ≥ 10 years than children from the age group of <10 years (OR=1.39; 95% CI= 1.02-1.89, p<0.291). A significant difference was observed in children of the upper SES (OR=1.57; 95%CI=1.09- 2.28, p<0.0120) and in those who viewed TV for ≥ one hour than those who viewed it for < 1 hours (OR=1.40;95%CI=1.04-1.89, p<0.02). A significant difference was also observed in children who attended school by cycling or walking than in children who did so by using other vehicles (OR=1.59; 95%CI =1.14-2.24, p<0.0046) and in children who slept for ≥ 7 hours than children who slept for < 7 hours (OR=1.87; 95%CI=1.38-2.53,p<0.0001). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was significantly lower among children who swam (p<0.0032), danced regularly (p< 0.0353) and played outdoor games (p<0.0323) than their other counterparts. Hence, factors like swimming and not swimming (OR=0.38; 95%CI 0.18- 0.74), dancing regularly and not dancing (OR=0.65; 95%CI 0.42- 0.98), playing/not playing indoor games and outdoor games (OR=0.69; 95%CI 0.49-0.99) were found to be protective against overweight/obesity.[Table/Fig-4] shows that the risk of overweight /obesity was significantly higher among children who were non-vegetarians (OR=1.88; 95% CI=1.39-2.55, p<0.0001) and among those who did not consume milk (OR=1.66; 95% CI=0.99-2.71, p<0.0345). The risk of obesity/overweight was also significantly high in those who regularly consumed junk food (OR=2.54; 95% CI=1.82-3.53, p<0.0001), those who did not consume fruits (OR=2.28; 95% CI=1.38-3.66, p<0.0003), and in whom the calorie intake was more than the recommended daily allowances (RDA) (OR=1.88; 95% CI=1.39-2.55, p<0.0001). Eating in restaurants regularly, eating green salads regularly and the consumption of soft drinks/ chocolates were found to be non significant.

Discussion

Childhood obesity was considered as a problem in affluent countries. Now- a-days, this problem has started appearing in the developing countries also (1). Obesity among children in India has became a public health problem (prevalence >5%) (15). In this study, we have presented the estimates on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in school children who were aged 5-16 years in Nagpur city, by using the individual weight and height measures to calculate the BMI. The overall prevalence of overweight among the urban school children was 9.0% and the prevalence of obesity was 5.5%. Overall, the prevalence of overweight/obesity was 14.5% in the age group of 5 to 16 years. Various studies from India have also shown the increased prevalence of obesity in India. The results of a study from Punjab revealed that children in the age group of 11–17 years, who resided in the urban areas, were more overweight (11.6%) as compared to the children from the rural areas (4.7%). However, more children were found to be obese in the rural areas (3.6%) as compared to those in the urban areas (2.6%) (4). The results of the study (3) which was done on 1228 boys at Pune, in the age group of 10–15 years, showed that the prevalence of obesity was 5.7%, whereas the prevalence of overweight was 19.9%. A cross-sectional study which was carried out on 2008 school children of the age group of 9–15 years in Punjab, revealed that the overall prevalence of obesity and overweight were 11.1% and 14.2% respectively (5). Another study which was conducted by the Nutrition Foundation of India, found that among 5000 children who were aged 4–18 years in a Delhi private school, 29% were overweight (6). A similar study (7) which was done in south India showed the prevalence of obesity to be 3.1% and that of overweight to be 16.8%. A study on 707 children in the age group of 10–15 years at Chennai revealed that 10% of the subjects were overweight and that 6% of them were obese (17).Studies from the rural areas mainly emphasized on undernutrition, and data on overweight/obesity was not available. However, Deshmukh et al (8) reported the prevalence of obesity to be 2.2 per cent in the rural Wardha district by using the same definition. In our study, the prevalence which was reported was more than double of that which was reported in Deshmukh’s study. Bharati et al (9) reported that the prevalence of overweight/obesity in Wardha city was 4.3%. A very low prevalence of overweight (4.17%) and obesity (0.73%) was reported from Lucknow city (17).The reason for the higher prevalence of overweight (26%) and obesity (7.4%) among the adolescent populations which were studied in Delhi and Ludhiana may be that the subjects who were selected for these studies were affluent. In the present study, the important determinants of overweight and obesity were, age more than 10 years, upper socio-economic status, watching TV for more than 1 hour per day, the use of an automobile as a means of transport to reach school, and sleeping for > 7 hours/day. A similar finding was observed in other studies also (10),(18),(19),(20). In addition, the prevalence of overweight/obesity was high among children who were involved in sedentary activities such as spending ≥ 1 hour in viewing television. Our observations were consistent with the observations of other studies (21), (22). Klesges et al (21) also reported the effect of watching television on the metabolic rate and overweight and obesity in children. In urban areas, considering the necessity of keeping children away from heavy traffic, they are not allowed to ride bicycles and are only allowed to play indoor games or watch television. Therefore, they are not encouraged to participate in outdoor sports and games. A clear socio-economic gradient in the prevalence of overweight and obesity was observed in our study, which was consistent with the findings of other studies (10). This could be because of several reasons which were related to obesity, which were encountered largely in children with a higher socio-economic status. These studies had reported that a rise in sedentary behaviour such as the increased use of vehicular transport and decreased physical activity had led to an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity This implies the importance of individual characteristics in the causation or predisposition of an individual to overweight and obesity. Bharati et al (9) and Avula et al (10) reported a similar predisposition in Wardha and Hyderabad. All these factors are related to a sedentary lifestyle. Overweight/obesity has become the classical disease of all the age groups (9). A significant difference was reported in the factors like a non-vegetarian diet, the consumption of junk food, lack of consumption of milk, consumption of calories in more than the recommended doses and a lack of consumption of fruits regularly. However, factors like swimming, dancing and playing outdoor games were found to be protective for overweight/ obesity. Our results revealed that regular physical activity was important for reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity. The prevalence was significantly lower in children who participated regularly in swimming, dancing and in outdoor games. Every student should take part in outdoor games and sports, irrespective of his/her gender. Teachers should be motivated to explain the significance of physical activities to the students. All the physical activities in the school need to be supervised and performed in the presence of physical education instructors. Currently, on an average, one session per week may be assigned to the physical training activities, which may be increased to twice later.

Conclusion

From the present study, it can be concluded that a significantly high prevalence of overweight/obesity was reported in children of the upper SES and among those who watched TV for ≥ 1 hour, those who used vehicles, those who slept for ≥ 7 hours and those who had dietary habits. Factors like swimming, dancing regularly and playing outdoor games were found to be protective. Therefore, the roles of physical activity, games and sports should be emphasized. There is an urgent need to educate the urban community on the aspects of healthy food habits and desired lifestyles to prevent overweight /obesity.

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