Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 9022

AbstractMaterial and MethodsResultsDiscussionReferencesDOI and Others
Readers' Comments (0) Article in PDF Audio Visual Citation Manager Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Archana Dambal

"Journal of clinical and diagnostic research is a welcome change in publishing practices. It aims to reach out to the grass-root level researchers who do not lack in experience, clinical material and ideas, but lack in their knowledge in English language and statistics. The journal achieves it's aim by supporting in these exact domains.
It also gives due credit to all research designs like descriptive and qualitative studies while many journals ignore these important study designs. The rigorous review process does not allow any compromise in quality
It is indexed in many indexing agencies and the articles are available under creative commons licence free of cost
The frequency of publication supports many aspiring authors from India and other countries.
It's wide scope welcomes articles across various specialities in medicine. In an era when there is an unscientific insistence on speciality specific research by regulatory bodies in medical education, JCDR supports collaborative research across specialities. I wish the publisher all the best in his future endeavors."



Dr. Archana Dambal
Department of General Medicine,
Belgaum Institute of Medical Sciences,Belgaum, Karnataka,INDIA,
On 30 Nov 2018




Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri

"The Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) has been in operation since almost a decade. It has contributed a huge number of peer reviewed articles, across a spectrum of medical disciplines, to the medical literature.
Its wide based indexing and open access publications attracts many authors as well as readers
For authors, the manuscripts can be uploaded online through an easily navigable portal, on other hand, reviewers appreciate the systematic handling of all manuscripts. The way JCDR has emerged as an effective medium for publishing wide array of observations in Indian context, I wish the editorial team success in their endeavour"



Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri
Faculty, Pediatric Medicine
Super Speciality Paediatric Hospital and Post Graduate Teaching Institute, Noida
On Sep 2018




Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"



Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dematolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018




Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."



Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018




Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."



Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."



Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2011 | Month : October | Volume : 5 | Issue : 5 | Page : 1034 - 1037

Effect of Mukh Bhastrika (A Type of Pranayama) on the Sensory: Motor Performance

SHASHIKALA G.V., SHASHIDHAR P.K., BALJOSHI V.S., ANITA HERUR, ROOPA B. ANKAD, SUREKHARANI CHINAGUDI

Corresponding Author. MD, S Nijalingappa Medical College, Navanagar, Bagalkot-587102, Karnataka, India. MD, Kims, Hubli, Karnataka, India. MD, S Nijalingappa Medical College, Navanagar, Bagalkot-587102, Karnataka, India. MD, S Nijalingappa Medical College, Navanagar, Bagalkot-587102, Karnataka, India. MD, S Nijalingappa Medical College, Navanagar, Bagalkot-587102, Karnataka, India.

Correspondence Address :
Shashikala G.V.
Assistant Professor, Department of Physiology,
S. Nijalingappa Medical College,
Navanagar, Bagalkot - 587102
Karnataka, India.
Mobile: +919986697172
E-Mail: dr.gvs@rediffmail.com

Abstract

Background: Pranayama has a very important role in the yogic system of exercises and it has been said to be much more important than yogasanas for keeping sound health. The practice of Mukh Bhastrika, a type of pranayama, is known to improve human performance. The studies which have been conducted till date were on the effect of the short term practice of Mukh Bhastrika, other types of pranayamas and yoga in general. The Reaction Time (RT) is a means of determining the sensory motor association and the performance.

Aim: The aim of the present study was to know whether practising Mukh Bhastrika alone had any beneficial effect on the CNS arousal, the sensory-motor association and its performance.

Materials and Methods: This interventional study was done in 50 young, male volunteers in whom the auditory and the visual reaction times were recorded before and after 12 weeks of Mukh Bhastrika training.

Results: There was a decrease in both the auditory and the visual reaction times. This indicated an improvement in the sensorymotor performance and the enhanced processing ability of the central nervous system.

Conclusion: Hence, the regular practice of Mukh Bhastrika should be encouraged for better performance in situations which require faster reactivity such as sports, race driving, specialized surgery, machine operation, trainable mentally retarded children, etc.

Keywords

Mukh Bhastrika; reaction time; sensory motor performance

How to cite this article :

SHASHIKALA G.V., SHASHIDHAR P.K., BALJOSHI V.S., ANITA HERUR, ROOPA B. ANKAD, SUREKHARANI CHINAGUDI. EFFECT OF MUKH BHASTRIKA (A TYPE OF PRANAYAMA) ON THE SENSORY: MOTOR PERFORMANCE. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research [serial online] 2011 October [cited: 2019 Aug 25 ]; 5:1034-1037. Available from
http://www.jcdr.net/back_issues.asp?issn=0973-709x&year=2011&month=October&volume=5&issue=5&page=1034-1037&id=1547

Introduction
Yoga is the most ancient system or education, which is based on a higher philosophical knowledge and a spiritual concept of man, for the harmonious development of the body and mind (1). Yoga includes diverse practices such as physical postures (asanas), regulated breathing (Pranayama), meditation and lectures on the philosophical aspects of yoga (2). Pranayama has been assigned a very important role in the yogic system of exercises and it has been said to be much more important than yogasanas for keeping sound health (3).

Bhastrika, a type of pranayama breathing (3), is a term which has been derived from the “bellow” which is used by the blacksmith to keep his coal furnace alive (4), in which the breath is actively blasted in and out in multiple ‘whooshes’ with forced abdominal contractions (5). Bhastrika has been shown to produce central neuronal activation (6), to improve the speed of reaction and to produce a balance between the sympathetic and the parasympathetic aspects of the autonomic nervous system (7). Mukh Bhastrika’s central activating role and its effects on the sensory-motor association can be assessed by using sensitive and reproducible tests, one such test being the Reaction Time (RT).

The Reaction Time (RT) is defined as the time interval between the application of a stimulus and the response by the subject (8) or the time which is taken by an individual to respond to an external stimulus (9). It is an indirect index of the processing ability of the Central Nervous System (CNS) and a simple means of determining the sensory – motor association and its performance (10). It is an index of the cortical arousal in short (11). A decrease in the reaction time indicates an improved sensory motor performance and an enhanced processing ability of the CNS (3). It has been foundthat changes in the breathing period which are produced by the voluntary control of respiration (like in various types of pranayama) are significantly correlated to the changes in the RT (12). Thus, RT can be used as a simple and objective method to determine the beneficial effects of any kind of yoga training that enhances the performance/central neuronal activation (13), and thus can be planned to be used in a study on yoga.

Previous studies on yoga, (11), (13) and on the acute effect of Mukh Bhastrika (4) in yoga –trained subjects, on their visual and auditory reaction times, have shown an improved CNS processing ability. But until date, there are no references which are available on the long term practice of Mukh Bhastrika alone, in normal subjects, with no experience of performing or practising any form of yoga, including pranayama, so that the results obtained can be applicable in a regularly encountered scenario e.g. mentally retarded children, older sportsmen, surgeons, drivers and in all those whose occupation requires a better sensory-motor coordination. The shortening of the RT is of value in all such situations which require a faster reactivity, it will be of immense help in altering the lifestyle of trainable, mentally retarded children (14) and it is also an effective means of training players who perform poorly, on the measures of conceptual thinking, reaction time and concentration (3), (4).

Hence, this study was designed to know the effect of practising Mukh Bhastrika alone, for a longer duration, by normal young volunteers, by using RT as an index, on the sensory-motor performance.

Material and Methods

This study was conducted on fifty, apparently healthy, male individuals of the age group of 18-25 years. Ethical clearance wasobtained from the institution. Subjects with a uniform pattern of diet and activity were included and subjects who were trained athletes/yoga performers, smokers and alcoholics, those who were taking drugs or other forms of tobacco, those having any kind of cardiovascular disorders, colour vision defects or those having a visual acuity of less than 6/6, those who were using hearing aids and those with auditory defects were excluded. Informed consent was obtained from each participant. A detailed history was taken and a thorough physical and clinical examination of each participant was carried out. Before training them for Mukh Bhastrika, the simple visual reaction time and the simple auditory reaction time were recorded for each participant.

Mukh Bhastrika Training: The procedure of Mukh Bhastrika is as follows: 1. Sit on padmasana. 2. Keep the body, neck and head erect. 3. Close the mouth. 4. Inhale and exhale quickly ten times like the bellows of the blacksmith i.e., hissing sound, starting with a rapid expulsion of the breath, following one another in rapid succession. 5. After ten expulsions, the final expulsion is followed by the deepest possible inhalation. 6. The breath has to be suspended as long as it can be done, with comfort. 7. The deepest possible exhalation has to be done very slowly. 8. This completes one round of Bhastrika. 9. After one round is over, rest a while by taking a few normal breaths, and then start with the next round. 10. Practise up to three rounds.

This was carried out in at the Dhanvantri Yoga Centre, Hubli, Karnataka, India, everyday in the morning from 7 to 7.30 a.m., 5 days a week, for 12 weeks, on an empty stomach (Table/Fig 1). The subjects were asked not to practise any other type of yoga, pranayama or exercise, and to have food only from the college mess during this period.

After the completion of the Bhastrika training for 12 weeks, there were no dropouts from the training session. The subjects were again subjected to the tests which have been described above, individually.

Reaction Time measurements
The simple auditory and visual reaction times were measured by using a “Response Analyser” (Table/Fig 2) which was manufacturedby “Yantrashilpa” Electronics-0101/Pune (YSRT-010-1). It is a microprocessor based system that is programmed to measure the reaction time of the subject to various sensory stimuli, namely sound, vision, touch and an electrical stimulus.

Before measuring the reaction time, each subject was made familiar with the “Response Analyser”. Detailed instructions regarding the experimental procedures which were employed for each test were given to the subjects.

The subject was asked to sit comfortably on a chair and was allowed to take 15 to 20 minutes of rest before beginning the actual procedure. The subjects were kept mentally alert by asking them, “Are you ready?”, to avoid any possible distractibility in the subjects. After some seconds, a stimulus was made to arrive, by pressing the start switch, by the examiner. The subject was instructed to press the thumb switch as soon as he was aware of the stimulus, but not prematurely.

The time of occurrence of the stimuli was changed as and when, during the performance of all the tests, with the help of a time setting, so that the subjects did not get clues as to when the stimuli would be presented to them. This was done to keep the subjects more attentive and to get more reliable reaction time readings. The subjects were also instructed to use the thumbs of the right and left hands alternatively, to press the thumb switch. This was to get the readings for that particular hand, and for that particular test.

1. The Auditory Reaction Time Test- This test measures the reaction to a sound (auditory) stimulus. The “audio” mode was selected and the mode indicator was switched on. A sound signal was given from in front of the subject. The “start” switch was pressed by the examiner and the subject reacted promptly to the auditory signal by pressing the thumb switch, as soon as the sound was audible to him. The reading on the display indicated the “Auditory Reaction Time” (ART) in milliseconds.

2. The Visual Reaction Time Test- This test measures the reaction to a visual (light) stimulus. The “visual” mode was selected and the mode indicator was switched on. A visual stimulus was given from in front of the subject. When the start switch was pressed by the examiner, a red light glowed in the bulb and the subject reacted by pressing the thumb switch, as soon as he saw the red light. The reading on the display indicated the “Visual Reaction Time” (VRT) in milliseconds.

Simple reaction times for the auditory and visual stimuli were measured in the fifty male subjects. Ten readings were taken foreach one of the stimuli (auditory and visual), by each hand (the right and left hands being used alternatively). An average of ten readings was taken as an individual value for that particular stimulus and for that particular hand. The readings were obtained (the ART for the right and the left hands, the VRT for the right and the left hands), before the Mukh Bhastrika training and also after 12 weeks of training. The results were analyzed statistically by applying the paired ‘t’ test (15) and p values which were less than 0.05 were considered as indicating a significant difference between the compared values.

Results

The mean age of the fifty male subjects was 19.48 ± 1.21years, their mean height was 168.50 ± 9.57cms and their mean weight was 56.88 ± 6.10kgs. The parameters for the simple reaction time were as follows:

1. Auditory reaction time (ART) for both the right and the left hands: (Table/Fig 3). 2. Visual reaction time (VRT) for both the right and the left hands: (Table/Fig 4).

Discussion

In the present study, we chose only male subjects to avoid any possible effect of the menstrual phase on the RT (10).

In our study, the ART and the VRT for both the right and left hands, had significantly reduced due to the Mukh Bhastrika training for 12 weeks. There is a lack of similar studies which were performed recently, after this study (6) wherein, before Mukh Bhastrika, the VRT and the ART were 244.57 ± 5.86 ms and 198.82 ± 5.86 ms respectively. Immediately after performing nine rounds of Mukh Bhastrika, the VRT and the ART decreased to 228.15 ± 5.84 ms and 172.58 ± 6.35 ms respectively. This decrease was statistically significant (p< 0.01), thus indicating that the performance of Mukh Bhastrika acutely enhanced the sensory information processing ability, hence resulting in a better motor performance.

A study on Kapalbhati, a yogic breathing practice by utilizing abdominal maneouvers and the bellows type breathing that was similar to Mukh Bhastrika, has shown that the practice of Kapalbhati for ten minutes increases the mental activity (16) and induces a calm alert state (17), due do which the reaction time may decrease, like the way it was shown to occur by the practice of Mukh Bhastrika in our study.

Other studies which have been done on yoga in general (which included pranayama with asanas) have been reported to produce a significant reduction in both the VRT and the ART (11), (14) and an improved sensory-motor performance.

Studies have reported that Hatha yogic practices like agnisar, nauli and bhastrika utilize forceful abdominal contractions, bringing about the stimulation of somatic and splanchnic receptors, thus inducing EEG changes around the somatosensory and the parietal areas of the cerebral cortex, thus suggesting an effective arousal (6),(18). The reason for the shortening of the RT in our study also may be because of similar mechanisms.

Another study reported that during the concentrated mental exercise of pranayama breathing, there was a generalized alteration in the information processing at the primary thalamo-cortical levels (19), thus faster reactivity, like the one which was seen in the subjectsof our study. Yet another study reported that hyperventilation selectively depressed the motor cortical inhibition in humans (20), and that Mukh Bhastrika involved active and rapid expiratory efforts which were similar to that which was seen in hyperventilation. But an important difference between the yogic bellows-type breathing like Mukh Bhastrika or Kapalbhati and hyperventilation was that there were no abnormal EEG changes even after 10 minutes of Kapalbhati, whereas prolonged hyperventilation produced abnormal EEG (16).

Hence, in brief, a decrease in the RT indicated an improved sensory-motor performance, which could be explained on the basis of the enhanced processing ability of central nervous system. Mukh Bhastrika can improve this processing ability by -

• A greater arousal and a faster rate of information processing. • Improved concentration power and/or • An ability to ignore or inhibit extraneous stimuli.

A greater arousal and faster information processing can be explained on the basis of Mukh Bhastrika-induced alterations in the afferent inputs from the abdominal and the thoracic regions, which in turn can modulate the activity at ascending reticular activating system and thalamacortical levels (4).

Thus, it can be concluded that the regular practice of just Mukh Bhastrika shortens the RT, which is of value in situations which require a faster reactivity such as sports, machine operation, race driving, specialized surgery, etc. It will be of immense help in altering the lifestyle of trainable, mentally retarded children and also it is an effective means for training players who perform poorly, on the measures of conceptual thinking, reaction time and concentration.

References

1.
Pande PK, Gupta LC. Outline of sports medicine. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, 1996.
2.
Nagendra HR. Yoga, its basis and applications. Chennai: Vivekananda Kendra Prakashana Trust, 2005.
3.
Dutta Ray S. Pranayama-Yogic respiratory control. In: Yogic Exercises- Physiologic and Psychic Process. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, 1998.
4.
Bhavanani AB, MadanMohan, Udupa K. The acute effect of Mukh Bhastrika (a yogic bellows type breathing) on the reaction time. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2003; 47(3): 297-300.
5.
Gitananda Swami. Yoga: Step-by-Step. Pondicherry: Satya Press; 1980.
6.
Roldan E, Dostalet C. Descripition on an EEG pattern which was evoked in the central parietal areas by the hatha yogic exercise, agnisar. Act Nerv Super (praha) 1983; 25: 241-46.
7.
Yogacharya Dr. Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani. Therapeutic potential of pranayama. Available at: http://www.atmalayaashram.com/userfiles/ file/therapeutic%20aspects%20of%20yogic%20pranayama.doc (accessed on 10/08/2011).
8.
Madan Mohan DP, Thombre, Das AK, Subamanian N, Chandrashekar S. The reaction time in clinical diabetes mellitus. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1984; 28/4: 311-14.
9.
Mishra N, Mahajan KK, Maini BK. A comparative study on the visual and auditory reaction time of the hands and feet in males and females. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1985; 29/4: 213-18.
10.
Das S, Gandhi A, Mondal S. Effect of premenstrual stress on the audiovisual reaction time and on audiograms. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1997; 41: 67-70.
11.
Malathi A, Parulkar VG. Effect of yogasanas on the visual and auditory reaction time. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1989; 33: 110-12.
12.
Gallego J, Perruchet P. The effect of voluntary breathing on reaction time. J Psychosom Res 1993; 37: 63-70.
13.
Madanmohan, Thombre DP, Bharathi B. Effect of yoga training on reaction time, respiratory endurance and muscle strength. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1992; 36: 229-30.
14.
Un N, Erbahceci F. The evaluation of the reaction time on mentally retarded children. Pediat Rehabit 2001; 4: 17-20.
15.
Mahajan BK. Methods in biostatistics for medical students and research workers. Sixth Edition. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, 1999.
16.
Gere MM, Gharete ML, Rajapurkar MV. Effect of ten minutes of Kapalbhati on some physiological functions. Yoga Mimansa 1989; 28: 1-11.
17.
Stancak A, Kuna M, Srinivasan, Destalek C, Vishnudevananda S. Kapalbhati – Yogic cleansing exercise II EEG topography analysis. Homeost Health Dis 1991; 33: 182-89.
18.
Roldan E, Dostale RC. EEG Patterns which are suggestive of the shifted levels of excitation which are effected by hatha yogic exercises. Act Nerve Super (Prabha) 1985; 27: 81-88.
19.
Telles S, Joseph C, Venkatesh S, Desiraju T. Alterations of auditory middle latency evoked potentials during yogic, consciously regulated breathing and the alternative states of the mind. Int J Psychophysiol 1993; 14: 189-98.
20.
Priori A, Berardelli A, Mercuri B, Inghilleri M, Manfredi M. The effect of hyperventilation on the motor cortical inhibition in humans: a study on the electromyographic silent period which is evoked by trans- cranial brain stimulation. Electro Encephalogr Clic Neurophysiol 1995; 97: 69-72.

DOI and Others

JCDR/2011/1547

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)
  • www.omnimedicalsearch.com