Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 74264

AbstractMaterial and MethodsResultsDiscussionReferencesDOI and Others
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"

Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
Knowledge is treasure of a wise man. The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help ones reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journalsNo manuscriptsNo authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2011 | Month : June | Volume : 5 | Issue : 3 | Page : 467 - 469 Full Version

The Study Of Salmonellosis With Reference To Salmonella Typhi In Enteric Fever Patients

Published: June 1, 2011 | DOI:

Department of microbiology and physiology, Kesar SAL Medical College & Research Institute, Ahmedabad, Gujarat.

Correspondence Address :
Abhijit K. Awari
Doctor’s Quarter No. 9,
Kesar SAL Medical College & Research Institute
Opposite Science City
Bhadaj, Ahmedabad, Gujarat – 380 060.
M – 096875 96325.


The present study was carried out at the College of Medical Sciences and K J Mehta Hospital, Amargadh, Dist. Bhavnagar, Gujarat, during the period from January 2010 to December 2010, to detect Salmonella (S. typhi) cases and carriers by various methods, in clinically suspected cases of enteric fever. The sensitivity of each microbiological test for the diagnosis of salmonella was also evaluated. A total of 300 blood samples, 50 controls and 100 stool samples were processed, among which 90 cases were of clinically suspected enteric fever and 10 were of gastroenteritis. One hundred stool samples from healthy individuals as the controlswere processed and urine was processed in 10 cases, while CSF and pus were processed in one case each. S. typhi was the commonest isolate (75%), followed by S. Paratyphi A (15 %) and S. Paratyphi B (2.5 %) from blood, S. enteritidis (2.5 %) was isolated from pus and S. typhimurium (5 %) was isolated from the stool samples. The Widal test positivity was 38.66 % and the blood culture positivity was 12.33 %. The coagglutination test is a valuable adjuvant for the diagnosis of enteric fever. The Quinolone group of drugs is an alternative drug of choice for multi drug resistant salmonellosis. The incorporation of this drug in the base line restoration, if technically feasible, has to be advised.


Salmonellosis, Enteric fever, Coagglutination, Widal test

Typhoid fever is an example of infectious diseases which lead to death. It causes more than 5 % deaths in the areas of high transmission (1).

As per the health statistics of India, in children, it is one of the ten major causes of mortality (2).

This is because the infection is spread through contaminated water or food in rural areas because of poor water supply, poor sanitation and unhygienic practices, which is complicated by overcrowding; the incidence of salmonellosis is higher (3).

Due to the occurrence of drug resistant salmonella, which is mostly due to the misuse of antibiotics by unqualified practitioners, often without laboratory support in the antibiotic sensitivity test of organisms (4), an efficient and rapid technique of identification is essential for proper therapy (5).

The present investigation was undertaken with the salmonella being isolated from blood and stool samples, along with evaluation by Widal and coagglutination tests.

The main objectives were to detect the salmonella (S. Typhi) by various methods in clinically suspected cases of enteric fever, to determine the sensitivity and specificity of each microbiological test for the diagnosis of salmonella and to detect the carriers of salmonella.

Material and Methods

The study group comprised of patients of all age groups with a provisional clinical diagnosis of enteric fever. Various samples viz blood, stool, urine and pus were processed by using standardprotocols (Mackie and Mcartney 1996).6 Simultaneously, 100 stool samples and 50 blood samples from patients who had symptoms other than fever, were processed as the controls. The blood was inoculated in bile broth and was incubated and sub cultured on nutrient Maconkey’s and XLD agar after 24, 48 and 96 hours. A final subculture was done at the end of 7 days. The growth of S. typhi was confirmed by standard biochemical tests and slide agglutination tests by using salmonella polyvalent 0 antisera and the 09, Hd and Vi antisera which were obtained from CRI, Kasauli. The faeces were first passed in Selenite F broth and were then subcultured by following the above mentioned procedure. Urine and pus cultures were also screened wherever applicable.

The Widal test was confirmed to be positive by the tube agglutination method by following the standard procedure. A coagglutination test by using the Cowan 1 Staphylococcus strain, was done. One drop of each of the coagglutinable reagents was placed on a clear glass side. A drop of serum was added and both were mixed thoroughly. “The result was observed at the end of 2 minutes for any visible agglutination (7),(8). Forty strains were sent to Kasauli for serotyping, while 18 strains were sent to the Phage Typing Center, Department of Microbiology, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi.

Clot Culture: Five ml of blood was received in a sterile test tube and it was allowed to clot. The serum was used for the Widal test. The clot was ground aseptically with a sterile glass rod. 5 ml of bile broth was added to the clot. The clot was cultured and the results were interpreted after 24, 48 and 96 hrs respectively. The faecal culture was done by passing a loopful of the stool in the Selenite F broth and by incubating the broth at 37° C for 8 to 10 hrs. This was then sub cultured on XLD and Maconkey’s agar plates.

Coagglutination Test: The Cowan 1 Staphylococcus aureus NCTC (8530) strain was grown in BHI broth at 37°C for 4 hrs. BHI agar slopes were inoculated with this broth culture and were incubated at 37°C for 18 to 24 hrs. The cells were harvested in a minimal volume of 0.03 M Phosphate buffered saline (PBS), washed 4 to 5 times and resuspended in PBS containing 0.5 % formaldehyde for 3 hrs at room temperature. The cells were again washed in PBS 3-4 times. The suspension was heated at 80°C for 10 minutes with frequent agitation. After 3 washings in PBS, a 5 % cell suspension was prepared by sensitizing 1ml of the 5 % formalin stabilized cowan 1 Staphylococcal cells with 0.1 ml of different antisera, poly A-G, 0-9, H-d and Vi and normal rabbit serum (NRS) for 3 hrs at room temperature. These final suspensions were called polycoag, d-coag, vicoag and NRS-coag. The reagents were stored at 4°C until use (7),(8).


A majority (12.3 %) of the salmonella stains were isolated from blood, followed by their isolation from stool (5%) and pus (2.5 %). No stains were isolated during the present study from urine and CSF. S. typhi was the commonest isolate (75 %), followed by S.paratyphi A (15 %), S.typhimurium (5%), S. paratyphi B (2.5 %) and S. enteritidis (2.5 %). (Table/Fig 1)

A majority of the patients were within the age group of 10-20 years, followed by the age group of more than 20 years. Males were found to be commonly affected than the females. The maximum numbers of isolations were in the month of July, followed by a lower number of isolations in August. Out of 300 samples, 37 showed blood culture positivity, while 116 were slide and tube Widal positive. The clot culture was positive in 30 (10 %) out of 300 samples. Both the blood and clot cultures were positive in 30(10 %) samples (Table/Fig 2).

Out of the 300 samples, 225(75%) were co- agglutination positive. Out of the total 37 salmonellae which were isolated from blood, 30 were S.typhi, 6 were S. paratyphi A and one was S. paratyphi B. One S.enteritidis strain was isolated from the pus of a patient who was suffering from osteomyelitis.

Two S. typhimurium strains were isolated from the stool samples of patients with acute gastro enteritis. The commonest phage typeof S.typhi was E1 and that of S.paratyphi A was (1), while all other salmonella were untypeable.

All the quinolone groups were 100 % sensitive to the salmonella isolates. The most resistant pattern was observed with respect to Chloramphenicol and Tetracycline.


It was observed in the present study, that S.typhi was the commonest serotype which was isolated, followed by S. parathyphi A. and S.typhimurium from the blood and stool samples. S. paratyphi B was isolated from the blood samples. S.enteriditis was isolated from the pus sample from a case of osteomylitis and sickle cell anaemia. Braude also described cases of sickle cell anaemia, which were susceptible to infections which were caused by S. enteriditis (9). Blaser and Feldman (1981), in their study, found that S. typhimurium was the commonest isolate, followed by S.typhi from the samples blood and stool (10). The maximum incidence of salmonellosis was seen in the month of July, followed by a lower incidence in August. Sen and Saxena (1968) observed a high incidence of salmonellosis in the months of June to September (11).

Salmonellosis was reported most commonly in the patients who were less than 20 years of age and the incidence was higher in males than in females during the present study.

The commonest age group which was affected was the 11-20 years age group and there was no incidence in the age group of below one year. The male to female ratio was approximately 2:1. The same results were observed by Padmanabhan(12) (1970) and Sharma Gathwala(13) (1993).

Two methods were used for the isolation of salmonellae, clot culture and blood culture. In the present study, as compared to the blood culture (37 positive out of 300), the clot culture showed a relatively low isolation rate i.e. 30 out of 300 patients. This low isolation rate in the clot culture may be due to the improper lysis of the clot by mechanical methods, as the costs limited the use of streptokinase for the same.

The Widal test was positive in 116 cases (38.66 %). The higher numbers of Widal positivity in comparison to those of the blood culture may be due to the delay by the patients in seeking medical advice, which is very common in the rural population. A titre of 100 was taken as a significant titre, thus indicating a positive Widal test for the O antigen and 1:160 for the H antigen.

The serum of normal (uninfected) persons agglutinates the salmonella suspensions at dilutions up to about 1:50 and so that the titres cannot be taken as significant unless they are greater than 1:100 (Mackie and Mcartney 1996).

A circulating antigen of S.typhi was found in 75% of the sera which were tested by co agglutination, whereas in the blood culture, the positivity was only 12.33 % and the Widal positivity was 38.66 % . Shetty et al (1985) found that 81 % of the sera tested positive by coagglutination(14). Mukherji et al (1993), in another study of coagglutination with the serum of patients, found positive results in 67.3 % of the patients.(15) Mathai and Jesudason evaluated the specificity and sencitivity of the coagglutination test to be 97 % and 88 % respectively.(7) Shobharam et al found coagglutination as an acceptable alternative for serotyping (16).

False positive rates of the coagglutination test in the febrile control groups in our study were found to be nil. The results which were obtained, suggested that the coagglutination test of serum had the advantages of simplicity, easy reproducibility, rapidity and higher sensitivity, as compared to the blood culture and the Widal test. It is therefore a promising test for the diagnosis of typhoid.

Chloramphenicol is one of the drugs of choice in the treatment of typhoid. Fever is losing its efficacy and 4 quinolones, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, pefloxacin, and sparfloxacin were 100 % sensitive to the isolates. Gupta and Mena (1992) found that all their isolates were 100 % sensitive to ciprofloxacin (17).

Thus, it can be concluded that coagglutination is one of the most useful and easy methods because of its higher sensitivity and low cost. Quinolone is a useful alternative for the treatment of enteric fever.


Richens J, Weatherall D J, Leadingham J G & Warell D A. Oxford Medical Publications. 3rd Edition; 1996: 1: 561 – 568.
Health Statistics of India, 1985;335.
Parkar M T & Brain Duerden. D C Old Salmonella Topley and Wilsons Principles of Bacteriology, Virology, Immunity. 8th Edition; 1984: 2 : 469 – 488.
Sengupta S R. J Asso Phsycian Ind. 1991; 39: 439 – 440.
Sarvamangala Devi and Shivananda P G. Coagglutination for the diagnosis of enteric fever. Ind. J. Patho Micro. 1985; 28: 349 – 353.
Collee G J, Fraser A G, Dugid J P and Narimon B P. D C Old Salmonella Macki Mc Cartney. Practical Medical Microbiology. Churchill Livingstone. 14th Edition, 1996; 385 – 401.
Mathai E and Jesudason M V. Coagglutination in the diagnosis of typhoid fever. Ind. J Med Research. 1989; 2: 287 – 289.
Bhatt K and Patil C S. Comparison of blood culture supernatant, serum and urine coagglutination test for diagnosis of typhoid fever. Ind J Med Micro. 1995; 12 (1): 19 – 23.
Abraham Braude, Charles E, Davis Joshua, Gerald T. Braude Infectious disease and medical microbiology. 2nd Edition. 1983; 1190 – 1191.
Blaser M J and Feldman R A. Salmonella bacteraemia. Reports to the center for disease control (1968 – 1979). J Infectious disease. 1981; 143: 743 – 746.
Saxena S N and Sen S. Typhoid fever in Delhi area. J Ind Med Asso (JIMA).1968; 50: 297 – 304.
Padamanabham K. Enteric fevers in and around Madurai. J Association Physician Ind.1970; 18: 685 – 689.
Sharma A and Gathwala G. Clinical profile and outcome in enteric fever. Indian Peadiatrics Association. 1993; 30: 47 – 49.
Shetty N P, Shrinivasa H, Bhat K. Coagglutination and CIEP in the rapid diagnosis of typhoid fever. Am J Clinical Pathology. 1985; 85 (1): 80 – 84.
Mukharjee et al. Rapid diagnosis of typhoid fever by coagglutination in an Indian hospital. J Med Micro. 1993; 39 (1): 74 – 77.
Shobharam, Khurana S, Sharma S and Vadhera D V. Evaluation of coagglutination test for serotyping of entero-pathogenic bacteria. Indian J Med Res. 1989; 89: 290 – 296.
Saroj Gupta, Mena H S. Changing profiles of enteric fever in summer 1991. J Asso Phy India. 1992; 40 (11): 726 – 728.

DOI and Others


JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • Embase
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)