Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Dr Archana Dambal

"Journal of clinical and diagnostic research is a welcome change in publishing practices. It aims to reach out to the grass-root level researchers who do not lack in experience, clinical material and ideas, but lack in their knowledge in English language and statistics. The journal achieves it's aim by supporting in these exact domains.
It also gives due credit to all research designs like descriptive and qualitative studies while many journals ignore these important study designs. The rigorous review process does not allow any compromise in quality
It is indexed in many indexing agencies and the articles are available under creative commons licence free of cost
The frequency of publication supports many aspiring authors from India and other countries.
It's wide scope welcomes articles across various specialities in medicine. In an era when there is an unscientific insistence on speciality specific research by regulatory bodies in medical education, JCDR supports collaborative research across specialities. I wish the publisher all the best in his future endeavors."

Dr. Archana Dambal
Department of General Medicine,
Belgaum Institute of Medical Sciences,Belgaum, Karnataka,INDIA,
On 30 Nov 2018

Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri

"The Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) has been in operation since almost a decade. It has contributed a huge number of peer reviewed articles, across a spectrum of medical disciplines, to the medical literature.
Its wide based indexing and open access publications attracts many authors as well as readers
For authors, the manuscripts can be uploaded online through an easily navigable portal, on other hand, reviewers appreciate the systematic handling of all manuscripts. The way JCDR has emerged as an effective medium for publishing wide array of observations in Indian context, I wish the editorial team success in their endeavour"

Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri
Faculty, Pediatric Medicine
Super Speciality Paediatric Hospital and Post Graduate Teaching Institute, Noida
On Sep 2018

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"

Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dematolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2011 | Month : April | Volume : 5 | Issue : 2 | Page : 254 - 256

Evaluation of the Thyriod Status, Oxidant Stress and Antioxidant Status in patients with Type - 2 Diabetes Mellitus


Dept of Biochemistry, Saveetha Medical College & Hospital, Saveetha University, Saveetha Nagar, Thandalam, Chennai – 602 105, Tamilnadu, India.

Correspondence Address :
Kedari G S R, Assistant Professor, Dept of Biochemistry, Saveetha
Medical College & Hospital, Saveetha University, Saveetha Nagar,
Thandalam, Chennai – 602 105, Tamilnadu, India.


Diabetes mellitus is the world’s most common endocrine disorder and the aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of the thyroid hormone status in type-2 diabetes cases by measuring serum free 3, 5, 3’-tri-iodothyronine (FT3), free tetra-iodothyronine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, the role of oxidative stress by assessing plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, as well as the status of antioxidants like ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione (GSH) in blood. For this, 30 casesof diabetes mellitus were included .The findings were compared with 30 age matched healthy controls, irrespective of sex. A significant increase in the levels of MDA was observed in the cases as compared to the controls. A significant decrease in the levels of serum FT3, vitamin-C, and GSH was also noticed in the cases as compared to the controls. There was no significant difference in the levels of serum FT4 and Serum TSH.


Serum FT3, Serum FT4, Serum TSH, Oxidative stress and antioxidants

How to cite this article :

KEDARI G S R. EVALUATION OF THE THYRIOD STATUS, OXIDANT STRESS AND ANTIOXIDANT STATUS IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE - 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research [serial online] 2011 April [cited: 2019 Jun 26 ]; 5:254-256. Available from

Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine metabolic disorder, affecting about 170 million people worldwide (1). The diseases of the thyroid gland are amongst the most abundant endocrine disorders in the world which are second only to diabetes. Thyroid diseases affect approximately 10-15% of the patients with diabetes, whereas in non-diabetics, the prevalence is approximately 6%. The mode of association between diabetes and thyroid diseases is more complex and is largely unclear. Neither diabetes nor thyroid diseases present a homogenous, nosological unit; the pathogenesis of the different types of diabetes as well as thyroid diseases is diverse. Therefore, even the correlations between them are different (2).

The metabolic dysregulation which is associated with diabetes mellitus causes secondary pathophysiological changes in multiple organs due to hyperglycaemia. Prolonged exposure to elevated glucose induces both repeated acute changes in intracellular metabolism and cumulative long-term changes in the structure and function of the macromolecules (3). In a normal cell, there is an appropriate pro-oxidant- antioxidant balance. This balance is shifted towards pro-oxidants when the production of the oxygen species is increased or the levels of the antioxidants are decreased and this state is called as ‘oxidative stress’. Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases (4).Oxidative damage occurs to biomolecules like lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and nucleic acids and other extracellular components like collagen and hyaluronic acid which are very deleterious (5).The formation of lipid peroxides by the action of the free radicals on unsaturated fatty acids has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and vascular diseases (6).Increased levels of the products of oxidative damage to lipids have been detected in the sera of diabetic patients and their presence correlates with the development of complications (7). The body’s defense mechanisms play an important role in the form of antioxidants that help to minimize the damages which are caused by oxidative stress. Antioxidants are compounds that dispose, scavenge and suppress the formation of free radicals or oppose their actions (8). Hence, the present study was undertaken to assess the thyroid hormone status, the extent of lipid peroxidation and the status of the antioxidant defense mechanisms in patients with diabetes.

Material and Methods

The present study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, PES Medical College, Kuppam. Thirty diagnosed cases of type- 2 diabetes mellitus were chosen for the study, which belonged to the age-group of 35-60 years. None of them had a previous history of thyroid diseases. Thirty age-matched subjects without diabetes were taken as the controls. Informed consent was obtained from all of them. Ten milliliters of fasting blood samples were collected by venipuncture and for the separation of sera, 5 ml of blood was centrifuged at 3000rpm for 5min and the remaining 5ml of blood was taken into a plain vial containing EDTA and was centrifuged at 3000rpm for 10min for the separation of plasma. The separated serum was used to estimate Serum TSH, FT3 and FT4 by the ELISA method (9), (10). The plasma MDA levels were estimated by using thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) by the method of Yagi (11) and Sinnhuber et al (12). Reduced glutathione was determined by the method of Beutler et al (13) and ascorbic acid was determined by the method of Tietz (14). All the results were expressed as mean ±SD and statistical comparsions were done. Due permission was obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee prior to the starting of the work.


There was a significant decrease in the values of serum FT3 in type- 2 diabetics as compared to the controls. There was no statistically significant difference in the values of serum FT4 and TSH between the type-2 diabetics and the control groups (Table/Fig 1). There was a significant increase in the values of MDA in diabetes mellitus patients as compared to the controls, whereas, there were significantly decreased levels of Vit-C and reduced glutathione in the diabetes mellitus cases as compared to the controls (Table/Fig 2).


Diabetes mellitus comprises a group of common metabolic disorders that share the phenotype of hyperglycaemia. Several distinct types of diabetes mellitus exist and these are caused by a complex interaction between the genetic factors (15).In the present study; there was no statistically significant difference in the levels of serum FT4 and serum TSH. The decreased serum level of FT3 may be due to the impairment of the 5-monodeiodinase enzyme activity which controls the peripheral conversion of T4 into T3 (16).Suzuki et al (17) attributed the abnormal thyroid hormone levels which are found in diabetes to the presence of the thyroid hormone binding inhibitor (THBI), which is an inhibitor of the extra thyroidal conversion enzyme which converts T4 to T3 and to the dysfunction of hypothalamo- hypophyseal-thyroid axis. These situations may prevail in diabetics and would be aggravated in poorly controlled diabetics. Stress, when associated with diabetes, may also cause changes in the hypothalamo anterior-pituitary axis. It appears that sub-clinical hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism may result from the hypothalamo- hypophyseal-thyroid axis disorders, as suggested by Celani et al (18). A suggestion was made that the finding of definite hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism should be given adequate attention and that the treatment of the thyroid disorder should be appropriately undertaken (19).

The significant rise in the MDA levels in diabetes confirms that it is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals. Lipid peroxidation is a chain reaction which provides a continuous supply of free radicals that initiate further peroxidation (20). Insulin secretion is associated with peroxide production. We also observed a significant decrease in the levels of reduced glutathione in the cases as compared to the controls. The intracellular depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) can be either due to the formation of a direct complex with an electrophilic agent or due to the inhibition of synthesis or due to the subjection of the cell to oxidative stress (21). When a cell is subjected to oxidative stress, there is increased utilization of glutathione, thus leading to its depletion. Many enzymes are GSH dependent and their activity may be regulated by the thiol disulphide exchange. They are thus dependent on the GSH status. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) is reduced in diabetics which are dimeric, mainly cytosolic enzymes that have extensive ligand binding properties in addition to their catalytic role in detoxification (22), (23). This reduction is due to the reduced levels of GSH. There is also a decrease in the levels of non-enzymatic anti-oxidants such as Vit-C, which states that there is an increased defense mechanism against oxidative damage in diabetes mellitus. The decrease in the levels of these non-enzymatic antioxidant parameters may be due to an increased turnover for preventing oxidative damage in these patients, thus suggesting an increased defense against oxidative damage (24).

It could be concluded that type-2 diabetic patients are more prone to thyroid abnormalities, which requires regular follow-up. Oxidative stress may play a major role in the pathogenesis and the development of diabetes mellitus and a decreased antioxidant status shows a necessity for the therapeutic administration of antioxidants as supplementary therapy to the diabetic cases. Extensive studies are required in future to reduce the morbidity of diabetes mellitus and its complications.


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Perros P, Mc crimmon RS, Shaw G, Frier BM. Frequency of thyroid dysfunction in diabetic patients: value of annual screening. Diabetes Med, 1995:12(7):622-627.
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Suzuki J, Nanno M, Gemma R, Tanaka I, Taminato T, Yoshimi T. The mechanism of thyroid abnormalities in patients with diabetes mellitus. Nippon Niabunpi Gakki Zashi 1994; 7(4):465-70.
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