Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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On Sep 2018

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On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

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On Sep 2018

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Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
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On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
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MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
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The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
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It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2011 | Month : April | Volume : 5 | Issue : 2 | Page : 227 - 230

The Incidence Of Candiduria In An ICU – A Study


*(M.D.) Professor of Microbiology **(M.D.) Professor of Medicine ***(M.B.B.S.) Tutor, Deptt of Microbiology Rural Medical College, Loni, Ahmednagar (MS)

Correspondence Address :
Corresponding Author
Dr Seema Bose
Professor of Microbiology
Rural Medical College
Loni-BK, Ahmednagar – 413736 (MS)


Due to the increased use of indwelling drainage devices, the incidence of candiduria has been increasing steadily. Candida isolates from the urine of catheterised patients were identified by the germ tube test, by chlamydospore formation on corn meal agar and by the sugar fermentation test. Simultaneously, the identification of the candida isolates was performed by using CHROM agar candida medium and Hi candida identification kit. Out of 59 urethral catheterized patients, 21 (35.59%) were positive for the growth of yeasts. Candida albicans was the commonest isolate, followed by Candida dubliniensis, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilosis. The rate of infection was directly proportional to the number of days during which the catheter was present in a patient.


Candiduria, Indwelling catheter, Non albicans candida, CHROM agar

How to cite this article :

SEEMA BOSE, ATINDRA KRISHNA GHOSH, REKHA BARAPATRE . THE INCIDENCE OF CANDIDURIA IN AN ICU – A STUDY. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research [serial online] 2011 April [cited: 2019 Aug 21 ]; 5:227-230. Available from

Candiduria is defined as the presence of yeast cells in urine. Due to the increased use of indwelling devices, the incidence of candiduria has been increasing dramatically. The property of adhesion of microorganisms has long been considered as a virulence factor, causing catheters and indwelling medical device associated infections. Colonization and device biofilm formation may occur within 3 days of catheterization. (1) With short term catheterization (upto 7 days), 10- 50% patients develop infections, whereas in long term catheterization (>28 days), usually all patients develop urinary tract infection. The risk of catheter associated infections increases by approximately 10% for each day. (2) The microorganisms are introduced into the urethra while (a) the catheter is inserted and (b) through the sheath of the exudates surrounding the catheter, or (c) they travel intraluminally from the tube or the collection bag.
Besides Candida albicans, the incidence of candiduria caused by nonalbicans candida has been increasing steadily. It is also necessary to identify the isolates of candida upto the species level, as some of them have an innate resistance to antifungals. (3)
This study was undertaken to find out the incidence of candiduria in the catheterized patients of an ICU of a rural tertiary care hospital situated in Maharashtra and for the identification of the candida isolates upto the species level by using various phenotypic methods, because it was necessary for timely antifungal therapy.

Material and Methods

The duration of the study period was six months. 59 urine samples from urethral catheterized patients were processed in the microbiology laboratory. Direct microscopy was done from all the samples. Culture was done on blood agar and MacConkey’s agar and these plates were incubated at 37oC for 24 hours. Two Sabouraud’s dextrose agar slants were inoculated and incubated at 370C and 300C for 7 days. The isolates were identified as candida species by Gram’s staining. (4)

Candida albicans was identified by the germ tube test, by chlamydospore formation on cornmeal agar and by the sugar fermentation test. (5) Simultaneously, the identification of the candida isolates was performed by using Hi CHROM candida agar medium and Hi Candida identification kit which was obtained from Hi Media Pvt Ltd, India.

The CHROM agar medium was prepared as per the manufacturer’s instructions and all the 21 candida isolates were inoculated separately. The inoculated petri dishes were incubated at 300C for 48 hours.

All the 21 candida isolates were also tested with Hi Candida identification system. The strips which were provided with the kit were inoculated as per the manufacturer’s instructions and these were incubated at 220C for 48 hours.

Additional tests for the identification of Candida dubliniensis were done by subculturing Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar slants and by incubating the slants at 450C for 48 to 72 hours. (6)

ATCC 10231 Candida albicans was included in this study as a control strain.


All the 21 candida isolates were initially identified by Gram’s staining. (Table/Fig 1)
In our study, the rate of infection was directly proportional to the number of days during which the catheter was present in the patient. (Table/Fig 2)
The number of the various candida species which were isolated from the urine samples of catheterized patients admitted the ICU, were as follows: 12(57.14%) Candida albicans, 4(19.04%) Candida dubliniensis, 2(9.52%) Candida glabrata, 2(9.52%) Candida tropicalis and 1(4.76%) Candida parapsilosis. The total number of candida isolates was 21(35.59%). (Table/Fig 2)

Out of the 21 candida isolates, 9(42.85%) were non albicans candida. (Table/Fig 3)
Candida albicans was identified by the germ tube test, (Table/Fig 4) the chlamydospore formation test, (Table/Fig 5) and the sugar fermentation test.

On Hi CHROM candida agar medium, Candida albicans formed light green colonies, (Table/Fig 6) Candida glabrata formed pink coloured colonies, (Table/Fig 7) Candida dubliniensis showed dark green, fuzzy growth, (Table/Fig 8) Candida tropicalis formed blue coloured colonies, (Table/Fig 9) and Candida parapsilosis formed cream coloured colonies. (7) (Table/Fig 10) A mixed growth of Candida isolates were identified as Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis and these were seen as light green and dark green colonies. [Table/Fig 11] All the 21 candida isolates were correctly identified by Hi Candida identification kit. [Table/Fig 12]


With the use of indwelling medical devices in the ICU, a significant rise in the incidence of Candida albicans and nonalbicans candida infections were reported from various regions. (8) Kojic EM et al. (9) reported that medical device induced infections contributed to about half of all the nosocomial infections and that 10% of such infections were due to the candida species.

The gold standard for yeast identification is the use of molecular diagnostic techniques. However, these sophisticated techniques are expensive and require technical expertise. (10)

The identification of the candida species by the conventional methods requires 3 to 5 days or even longer. (11) The routine identification of candida upto the species level depends upon easy to perform, rapid screening methods.

In our study, out of 59 clinical samples, 21(35.59%) showed the growth of candida species. The total number of Candida albicans infections was 12(57.14%), followed by 4(19.04%) of Candida dubliniensis, 2(9.52%) of Candida glabrata, 2(9.52%) of Candida tropicalis and 1(4.76%) of Candida parapsilosis.

Out of the 21 candida isolates, 9(42.85%) were non albicans candida. (Table/Fig 3) In our study, the highest number of nonalbicans candida infections were caused by Candida dubliniensis (19.04%).

Price MF et al (12) observed that other than Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata were the major isolates which were found in most of the institutions.

Candida dubliniensis and Candida albicans share many morphological and physiological characteristics. This close similarity may cause the misidentification of the isolates of Candida dubliniensis as Candida albicans. (5)

CHROM agar candida medium contains enzymatic substrates linked to chromogenic substances which react with different enzymes that are produced by the candida species, thus leading to colour variation in the colonies. (13) Two of our Candida dubliniensis isolates did not show dark green colour on this medium, which were later confirmed by no growth at 450C. (14)

In one sample, there was a mixed growth of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis. On CHROM agar, it was very easy to identify them, as they formed colonies of different colours. [Table/Fig 11] Kathrin et al (15) found that the CHROM agar candida was insufficient for detecting Candida dubliniensis. However, Bernal S et al (16) found this medium to be quite useful for the identification of the Candida species.

Hi Candida identification kit is a standardized colourimetric identification system, utilizing 12 conventional biochemical tests. The tests are based on the principles of pH change and substrate utilization. In our study, all the candida isolates were correctly identified by this system. P Umabala et al (17) used fungichrom system for yeast identification, which was also based on the assimilation of carbohydrates and the hydrolysis of chromogenic substrates. She reported it to be quite satisfactory


With the use of indwelling medical devices, candida infections are on the rise. The infection rate is directly proportional to the number of days during which the catheter was present in the patient. Along with Candida albicans, non albicans candida species are also playing a major role in hospital acquired infections. Hi CHROM candida agar is a very useful medium for the identification of mixed candidal infections.

Hi Candida identification system is a fairly accurate method for the identification of medically important candida species. It is necessary to identify the candida isolates upto the species level, as some of them have innate resistance to the commonly used antifungals


Annaissie E, Samonis G, Kontoyiannis D, Costerton J, Sabharwal U, Bodey G and Raad I. Role of catheter related infections. Eur. J. clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis 1995; 14: 135 – 137
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Betty AF, Daniel FS, Alice SW. Laboratory methods in basic microbiology , In chapter: 50. Bailey and Scotts Diagnostic Microbiology 12thed Mosby Elsevier; 2007. 629 – 717.
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Baradkar VP, Mathur M, Kumar S. Hi CHROM Candida agar for identification of candida species. I J Pathol Microbiol 2010 ; 53 : 93 – 95.
Carol A, Kumamoto , Marcelo DV. Alternative Candida albicans life styles : Growth on surfaces . Annu Rev Microbiol 2005. 59 ; 113 – 133.
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Xu J , Millar BC, Moore JE, McClurg R, Walter MJ, Evans J, Hedderwick S, McMullan R. Comparison of API 20 C with molecular identification of candida species isolated from blood stream infection. J Clin Pathol 2002; 55 : 774 – 777.
Elie CM, Lott TJ, Reiss E, Morrison CJ. Rapid identification of candida species with species specific DNA probes. J Clin Microbiol 1998; 36 : 3260 – 3265.
Price MF, LaRocco MT, Gentry LO. Fluconazole susceptibilities of candida species and distribution of species recovered from blood cultures over a 5 year period. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2003; 41 :1259 – 1262.
Pfaller MA, Houston A, Coffmann S. Application of CHROM agar candida for rapid screening of clinical specimens for Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata. J Clin Microbiol 1996; 34 : 58 – 61.
Mosca C, Moragues MD, Llovo J, Ai MA, Coleman DC, Pontan J. Casein Agar a useful medium for differentiating Candida dubliniensis from Candida albicans. J Clin Microbiol 2003; 41 : 1259 – 1262.
Kathrin T, Hasse G, Seibold M, Bergmann F, Steammler M, Franz T, Naumann D. Evaluation of phenotypic markers for selection and identification of Candida dubliniensis. J Clin Microbiol 2000; 38: 1599 – 1608.
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