Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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On Sep 2018

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On Sep 2018

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"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

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Saraswati Dental College
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On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Year : 2011 | Month : November | Volume : 5 | Issue : 7 | Page : 1478 - 1480 Full Version

The Quality of Oral Rehabilitation in the Partially Edentulous South Indian Population: A Cross Sectional Study

Published: November 1, 2011 | DOI:
Geetha Prabhu KR, Prabhu R, Rathika Rai, Ilango T, MA Easwaran, Iffat Aara Shakir

1. MDS, Reader, Department of Prosthodontics, Thai Moogambigai Dental College and Hospital, Mogappair, Chennai - 600 107 Tamilnadu, India. 2. MDS, Reader, Department of Prosthodontics, Thai Moogambigai Dental College and Hospital, Mogappair, Chennai - 600 107 Tamilnadu, India. 3. MDS, Professor, Department of Prosthodontics, Thai Moogambigai Dental College and Hospital, Mogappair, Chennai - 600 107 Tamilnadu, India. 4. MDS, Professor, Department of Prosthodontics, Thai Moogambigai Dental College and Hospital, Mogappair, Chennai - 600 107 Tamilnadu, India.5. MDS, Senior Lecturer, Department of Prosthodontics, Thai Moogambigai Dental College and Hospital, Mogappair, Chennai - 600 107 Tamilnadu, India. 6. MDS, Senior Lecturer, Department of Prosthodontics, Thai Moogambigai Dental College and Hospital, Mogappair, Chennai - 600 107 Tamilnadu, India.

Correspondence Address :
KR Geetha Prabhu, MDS,
Reader, Dept. of Prosthodontics,
Thai Moogambigai Dental College and Hospital,
Mogappair, Chennai-600 107
Phone: 09840891669


Purpose of the study: To assess the prevalence of the partially edentulous condition and the current treatment modalities in the south Indian population and to plan for further scope of improvement.

Materials and Methods: A clinical examination was done on patients who reported to the Department of Prosthodontics and the cases were assessed for the prevalence of partial edentulousness amongst the arches and the type of removable prostheses which were given. The data was analyzed by using descriptive statistics.

Results: Partial edentulousness is equally prevalent in the mandibular and the maxillary arches. Kennedy’s Class I is the most common maxillary arch, whereas Class III is the most common mandibular arch. 96.9% of the removable prosthesis was made of acrylic resin frameworks and 3.1% was made of cast metal frameworks.

Conclusion: Non-metallic, removable prostheses remain a common prosthodontic treatment modality in the south Indian region. This data indicates a need to improve the quality of oral rehabilitation for the partially edentulous patients in south India.


Oral rehabilitation, Partial edentulousness,Removable

Dental awareness and the access to preventive dental care have contributed significantly to a decrease in the edentulous population. Despite the decreasing rate of tooth loss, the demand for removable prosthodontic treatment remains high. This owes the relatively expensive modalities of treatments such as fixed partial dentures and dental implants, which may limit their availability to the lower socio-economic groups in whom the highest rates of tooth loss occur (1),(2),(3),(4),(5),(6). The long term clinical results suggest that it is believed that without the strength and established design principles of the cast metal framework removable partial dentures (RPD), the alternative frameworks have a reduced longevity and that they cause unfavourable periodontal consequences (7),(8). Bissada et al found that the inflammation was greater when acrylic resin came in contact with the gingival tissue than when metal was used (9). These results seem to confirm a preference for metal framework RPDs in terms of the clinical performance and the periodontal health. In the removable prosthodontic treatment, the frequency of the use between the cast metal and the acrylic resin framework RPDs varies in different countries, thus reflecting the quality of the oral rehabilitation which is done for the partial edentulous patients (10),(11),(12),(13),(14). In a developing country like India, documented data on the prevalence of partial edentulousness and the quality of oral rehabilitation is found to be lacking. Considering the previously mentioned factors, an analysis of the prevalence of various classes of partial edentulousness and various trends in oral rehabilitation would be of profound clinical interest. Hence, this study was done to investigate the patterns of tooth loss and to present the details regarding the quality of oral rehabilitation in partially edentulous patients in south India.

Material and Methods

The study group consisted of 1800 consecutive patients from the Outpatients Department of Prosthodontics at the ThaiMoogambigai Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, during a study period of 6 months. Trained dental surgeons collected the data which was required for the study, by doing clinical examinations. The data which was collected, included the incidence of partial edentulousness among the arches, the type of Kennedy’s Classification and the type of RPD treatment, if any, which was already given to the patients. The Kennedy’s Classification with appropriate modification and space enumeration was listed according to Applegate’s modifications (15). Dental implants, if present, were considered as ‘abutments’, based on the Kennedy’s Classification (16). However, the third molars, fixed prosthesis pontics and closed spaces were not considered as missing teeth. The patients who were existing wearers of removable partial denture prostheses were divided into patients with acrylic resin partial dentures and those with cast partial dentures. An RPD was considered to be a metal framework if the major connector was cast in metal alloys and the RPD was considered to be acrylic resin if the major connector was processed in acrylic resin. The data which was collected was tabulated by using a computerized spreadsheet (Microsoft Excel 2010; Microsoft, Redmond, Wash) and it was analyzed by using descriptive statistics.


A total of 1800 patients were examined for the incidence of partial edentulousness among the arches and for the type of Kennedy’s Classification which was present in the arches (Table/Fig 1). Out of 1800 subjects, 889 were partially edentulous in the maxillary arch and 911 were patially edentulous in the mandibular arch, thus indicating a higher incidence in mandibular arch than in the maxillary arch. An incidence of 36.3% was reported for Kennedy’s Class III classification, followed by the Class I (33.3%), Class II (25%) and the Class IV (5.4%) classifications. The modification spaces for the Classes I, II and III are summarized in (Table/Fig 2), (Table/Fig 3),(Table/Fig 4) respectively. Out of 593 class I RPD subjects, 47.8% had asingle modification space, 19.2% subjects had two modification spaces, 27.8% had no modification space and 5% had 3 or more modification spaces. Out of 451 subjects, 42.9% Class II RPDs had a single modification space, 29.2% subjects had two modification spaces, 21.7% had no modification space and 6.2% had 3 or more modification spaces. 41.1% reported for Kennedy’s Class III with no modification, 38.1% reported for a single modification, 16.1% reported for 2 modifications and 4.6% reported for 3 or more modification spaces which were present. Out of the 1800 subjects who were examined for the partially edentulous condition, 1097 subjects had either cast metal or acrylic resin RPDs (Table/Fig 5). The acrylic resin RPDs outnumbered the cast metal ones in the number of subjects who reported with RPDs, with 96.9% wearing acrylic RPDs and only 3.1% of the subjects wearing cast metal RPDs.


The prevalence of the partially edentulous condition indicates a lack of progress towards controlling dental disease or the patient’s affordability of fixed prostheses. The prevalence of Kennedy’s Class III was more common in contradiction to other studies which were reported by Al Jhony et al (16) and Anderson et al (17). The presence of Kennedy’s Classification with 2 or 3 modifications indicates a lack of awareness about preserving the edentulous state. The reduced incidence of the Class IV classification, in replacing only the anterior teeth, demonstrates the rejection of the removable prostheses in comparison to the fixed prostheses, owing to the improved aesthetics. The use of non metal major connectors was found to be extremely high in this study as compared to that in other international studies which were reported from north America andsouth east Asia. Owall et al (11) and Deo K. Pun et al (12) reported a 28.5% and a 33.2% fabrication of non-metal major connectors in north America respectively and Cha et al (13) reported a 65% use of acrylic frameworks in the Vietnamese population. The information on the prevalence of partial edentulousness and the quality of oral rehabilitation, provided various demographically based data on the socio economic status of that community, its awareness and acceptance towards the treatment and the knowledge and skill ofthe service provider, which included both clinical and laboratory services. In a developing country like India, the need to improve the quality of oral rehabilitation should be emphasized and reinforced in order to improve the overall well being of the individual and the community.


The partially edentulous condition exists with equal incidence in the maxillary and in the mandibular arch. Kennedy’s Class III remains the most common (36.3%) classification in the mandibular arch and Kennedy’s Class I remains the most common one in the maxillary arch (33.3%). The incidence of non-metal frameworks was 96.9% in the south Indian population.


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