Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 51773

AbstractMaterial and MethodsResultsDiscussionReferencesDOI and Others
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"



Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018




Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."



Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018




Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."



Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."



Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011
Anuradha

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.


Dr. Anuradha
E-mail: anuradha2nittur@gmail.com
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2011 | Month : November | Volume : 5 | Issue : 7 | Page : 1381 - 1384 Full Version

Evaluation of the Hypoglycaemic and Hypolipidaemic Activities of the Aqueous Extract of the leaves of Ixora Coccinea Linn in Diabetic Rats


Published: November 1, 2011 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2011/.1660
Yasmeen Maniyar, Prabhu Bhixavatimath

1. M.D. Pharmacology, Professor & HOD, Department of Pharmacology, S.Nijalingappa Medical College and H.S.K Hospital and Research Centre, Navanagar, Bagalkot , Karnataka, India 587101 yasmeenmaniyar@gmail.com 2. M.Sc. Pharmacology, Lecturer, Department of Pharmacology, S.Nijalingappa Medical College and H.S.K Hospital and Research Centre, Navanagar, Bagalkot , Karnataka,India 587101 drprabhusb@gmail.com

Correspondence Address :
M.D. Pharmacology, Professor & HOD,
Department of Pharmacology,
S.Nijalingappa Medical College and H.S.K
Hospital and Research Centre, Navanagar,
Bagalkot , Karnataka, India 587101
yasmeenmaniyar@gmail.com

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate the hypoglycaemic and the hypolipidaemic activity of the aqueous extract of the leaves of Ixora Coccinea Linn in alloxan induced diabetic albino rats.

Materials and methods: Diabetes was induced in the albino rats by the administration of alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg, i.p.). The rats were divided into five groups of six animals each. The first group served as the non-diabetic control, the second group as the diabetic control and the third group as the standard and it was treated with 0.1 mg/kg/ day of glibenclamide. Groups four, five and six received 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous extract. The blood samples were analyzed for blood glucose on days 0, 1, 7, 14 and 21 and the lipid profile was assessed on day 21.

Results: The aqueous extract of leaves of Ixora Coccinea showed significant reduction (p<0.01) in the blood glucose levels and the serum lipid profile levels, with 400 mg/kg of body weight in the alloxan induced diabetic rats as compared to the controls.

Conclusion: It was concluded that the aqueous extract of the leaves of Ixora Coccinea was effective in controlling the blood glucose levels and in improving the lipid profile in diabetic rats.

Keywords

Hypoglycaemia, Hypolipidaemia, Ixora Coccinea linn, Aqueous leaf extract.

INTRODUCTION
Diabetes is a metabolic disorder of multiple aetiologies, which is characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia, with disturbance in the carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism, which results from defects in insulin secretion and insulin action or both. (1) India leads the world with the largest number of diabetic patients and it has been termed as the diabetic capital of the world .According to the International Diabetes Federation, the number of the people with diabetes in India is currently around 40.9 million and the number is expected to rise 69.9 million by 2025, unless urgent preventive steps are taken. (2) Diabetes mellitus has been identified by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) as one of the refractory diseases for which satisfactory treatment is not available and a suitable herbal preparation has to be investigated about. In India, there is a documentation of about 150 plants of various families with hypoglycaemic activity. More than 1200 plant species are being used worldwide for diabetes phytotherapy and experimental studies have proved the hypoglycaemic activity of a large number of these plants. In addition to the correction of the blood glucose levels, several plants have the potential to ameliorate the lipid metabolism abnormalities of diabetes mellitus. In order to reduce the number of diabetes complications and to postpone their development, Savickiene recommended the use of biological active components and plants. Thus, this study may be a new approach in the treatment of diabetes mellitus (3).

Ixora Coccinea Linn is a small shrub which is cultivated throughout India. (It is called as ‘Flame of the Woods’ in English, ‘Rangan’ in Hindi and Bengali and ‘Kisukare’ in Kannada.) Its roots and flowers are used for the treatment of dysentery, dysmenorrhoea, leucorrhoea, haemoptysis, and catarrhal bronchitis. Its leaves are used for the treatment of diarrhoea. Its roots are also used for the treatment of hiccups, nausea and loss of appetite and externally for the treatment of sores, eczema and chronic ulcers. Its rootscontain aromatic acrid oil, tannin and fatty acids. Its leaves yield flavonoids, kaemferol, quercetin, anthrocyanidines, phenolic acids, and ferulic acids. Its flowers yield cyanidins, flaconboides, and cooling materials which are related to quercitin. Its roots are ground into a pulp, mixed with water and are used as a tincture for diarrhoea and dysentery. (4),(5),(6) However, there is limited scientific evidence to verify these claims. There is a dearth of reports on the hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects of the leaves of this plant.

In view of this, the current study was designed to evaluate the hypoglycaemic and the hypolipidaemic activities of the aqueous extract of the leaves of Ixora Coccinea in diabetic rats.

Material and Methods

Plant material:
The leaves of Ixora Coccinea were collected from the garden of S.Nijalingappa Medical college, Bagalkot, Karnataka, India, during the period from March-June 2009. The identity of this plant was authenticated by the botanist, Prof. Jedimath and the voucher specimen was deposited in the Herbarium of the Department of Pharmacology of S.Nijalingappa Medical College, Bagalkot, Karnataka, India.

Preparation of the extract:
The leaves of this plant were subjected to surface sterilization by using 30% alcohol, and they were then dried in the shade. The dried leaves were subjected to size reduction to a coarse powder by using dry grinder and they were passed through a sieve. The powdered sample (50g) was boiled in hot water for 30 minutes, after which it was filtered by using a piece of white cotton gauze. The filtrate was evaporated to dry at 400C, which produced a brown coloured solid residue (yield:35% w/w). The residue wasweighed and stored in air and water proof containers and it was kept in a refrigerator at 40C. From this stock, a fresh preparation was made whenever it was required.

Animals:
Healthy Wistar albino rats of either sex, which weighed about 150- 200 g, were used. The animals were housed in poly propylene cages and were maintained under standard conditions (12h light:12h dark cycle;25± 20 C,35-60% humidity ).They were fed with a standard rat pellet diet (Hindustan Lever Ltd. Mumbai, India) and water ad libitum .The Institutional Animal Ethical Committee of S.Nijalingappa Medical College (IAEC-reg No:627/02/a CPCSEA), Bagalkot, Karnataka, India approved the study protocol.

Phytochemical screening:
The extract which was obtained, was subjected to various qualitative tests for the identification of the constituents which were present, by using simple and standard qualitative methods as described by Trease and Evans. (7)

Sample collection:
The blood samples were collected by the retro-orbital plexus puncture method from overnight fasted rats under light ether anaesthesia and the blood glucose levels were estimated by using Acucheck Active TM glucose strips in an Acucheck Active TM test meter.

Determination of LD 50 of the extract:
For the acute oral toxicity study and the LD 50 determination, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and development (OECD) guideline 425 (8) was followed.

Induction of diabetes:
A single dose (120 mg/kg, b.w, i.p) of alloxan monohydrate (Sigma Ltd.USA) which was dissolved in normal saline, was used for the induction of type 2 diabetes in rats after overnight fasting. After 1hr of alloxan administration, the animals were fed the standard pellets and water ad libitum. The animals were stabilized for a week and those showing blood glucose levels (estimated by the GOD-POD method) of more than 250 mg/dl were selected for the study.

Experimental design:
The rats who were fasted overnight for 12-24 hours were randomly divided into 5 groups of 6 rats per group. Group 1 served as the normal control or the non diabetic group and was treated with 10ml/kg/day of distilled water orally. Group 2 served as the untreated diabetic control, which received 0.5mg/100g of the vehicle (2% gum acacia). Group 3 served as the standard group and was treated with 0.1mg/kg/day of Glibenclamide. Group 4, 5 and 6 were treated orally with 100mg/kg/day, 200mg/kg/day and 400mg/kg/day of the aqueous extract of the leaves of Ixora Coccinea respectively. The fasting blood glucose estimation was done at 0, 2, 4 and 6 hours after the treatment. The treatment was continued for 21 consecutive days. The fasting blood glucose levels were estimated at 0, 1,7,14 and 21 days.

Estimation of the biochemical parameters:
On day 21, blood was collected from the overnight fasted rats under ether anaesthesia by the retro-orbital plexus puncture method and was it kept aside for 30 min for clotting. By centrifuging the same sample at 6000rpm for 20 min, the serum was separatedand it was analyzed for total proteins (by the Biuret method)(9) cholesterol (by the CHOD-PAP method)(10) and triglycerides (by the GPO method)(11).

Statistical analysis:
All the values were expressed as mean ± SEM. The results were analyzed for statistical significance by using one way ANOVA, followed by the Dunnetts test. P values which were <0.05 were considered as significant.

Results

Phytochemical analysis:
The phytochemical analysis of the extract showed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, anthrquinones, anthracyanosides and reducing sugars.

Determination of LD50 of the aqueous extract of the leaves of Ixora Coccinea.
Administrations of a single dose of extract (500mg/kg, b.w., and p.o.) did not produce any mortality. The animals were alive, healthy and active during the observation period of 14 days. Use of the AOT 425 software was made to obtain higher doses for LD50 determinations as per the OECD guidelines. The results indicated that doses up to 2000mg/kg were non lethal.

Effects of the aqueous extract of the leaves of Ixora Coccinea on diabetic rats.
The hypoglycaemic activity of the aqueous extract of Ixora Coccinea on the fasting blood sugar levels of diabetic rats is shown in (Table/Fig 1). Acute and chronic treatments with the dose of 400mg/kg b.w., in alloxan induced diabetic rats showed a significant (p<0.01) decrease in the elevated blood glucose levels as compared to the controls. The doses 100mg/kg b.w. and 200mg/kg b.w. of the extract did not reduce the sugar levels to normal .But the extract in the dose of 100mg/kg b.w. showed significant (p<0.01) hypoglycaemic activity on day 14 and the dose of 200mg/kg b.w., showed significant (p<0.01) results on day 7.

Biochemical parameters:
A decrease in the serum lipid profile and the serum protein levels (p<0.01) was noted with 400mg/kg b.w. of the aqueous extract of Ixora Coccinea in diabetic rats as compared to the diabetic controls and normal rats, as shown in (Table/Fig 2).

Discussion

The present study showed the hypoglycaemic and the hypolipidaemic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaves of Ixora Coccinea in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The diabetic rats which were treated with the extract showed a 4.15%, 6.52% and 8.56% decline in the blood glucose levels in 2, 4 and 6 hours. They showed a 12.63%, 22.38%, 30.14% and 38.19% decline in the blood glucose levels on days 1,7,14 and 21 respectively. There were significant differences in the serum cholesterol, triglycerides and the total protein levels.

Alloxan induces diabetes by destroying the insulin producing beta cells of the pancreas. In vitro studies have shown that alloxan is selectively toxic to the pancreatic beta cells, leading to the induction of cell necrosis. (12) This action is mediated by reactive oxygen species with a simultaneous massive increase in the calcium concentrations, leading to a rapid destruction of the beta cells.

(13) The use of lower doses of alloxan (120mg/kg b.w.) produced a partial destruction of pancreatic beta cells, even though the animals became permanently diabetic. Thus, these animals had surviving beta cells and a regeneration was possible(14).

Glibenclamide, the second generation sulfonylurea, is known to mediate the hypoglycaemic effect by stimulating insulin release from the pancreatic beta cells, reducing the hepatic clearance and suppressing the secretion of glucagon. (15) Sulfonylurea have been shown to suppress gluconeogenesis.

The hypoglycaemic effect of the aqueous extract may be due to the enhanced secretion of insulin from the beta cells of the pancreas or it may be due to an increased tissue uptake of glucose by the enhancement of the insulin sensitivity.

Elevated plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels are major risk factors of cardiovascular disease. The existing hypoglycaemic agents allow a sharp control of the blood glucose levels, but only an insufficient correction of the lipid abnormality, especially in hypertriglyceridaemia. (16) Diabetic rats showed elevated plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels due to hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance. (17) The aqueous extract, in the dose of 400mg/ kg b.w., reduced the triglyceride and the cholesterol levels along with a reduction in the blood glucose levels. Some studies have reported a similar hypolipidaemic activity in experimentally induced diabetic rats(18).

The active constituents which are responsible for the hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic activities of the extract are not known. Phytochemical analyses showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, anthracyanosides and reducing sugars in the extract. The presence of any of these phytocomponents may be responsible for the hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic activities of the extract in diabetic rats. Some of thestudies have reported that these activities are due to the flavonoids, alkaloids and the tannins which are present in the extract(19).

Since many anti-diabetic drugs do not correct dyslipidaemia, the observed hypolipidaemic effects of this plant extract in diabetic rats makes Ixora Coccinea quite important in the management of diabetes. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the mechanism of action, particularly the bioactivity guided fractionation, isolation and the identification of the constituents of the plant extract, which are responsible for the observed pharmacological activities.

References

1.
Olefasky JM. Diabetes mellitus In: Wyngarden JB, Smith LH, Bennett JC. Text book of Medicine. Philadalphia: WB Saunders, 17 Ed; 1985;1320-41
2.
Sicree R, Shaw J, Zimmet P. Diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance. In: Gan D, editor. Diabetes Atlas. International Diabetes Federation.3rd, Belgium: 2006;15-103
3.
Hooft R. Drug discovery and the development for metabolic diseases. Drug Discov Today.2003; 8: 1064-6
4.
Vadivu R, Jayashree N, Ksthuri C, Rubhini K, Rukmankathan G. Pharmacognostical standardization of the leaves of Ixora Coccinea Linn. J Pharm Sci Res 2010;2:164-70.
5.
Satyavati GV, Raina MK, Sharma M. Medicinal plants of India. Ixora Coccinea Linn. New Delhi: ICMR; 1976;1: 92-5.
6.
Cooke T CIE. The flora of presidency of Bombay. Ixora Coccinea Linn. India: Botanical survey of India; 1901; 40.1
7.
Trease GE, Evans WC.A Text book of Pharmacognosy. London; Bailliere Tindall and Company Publishers.1983; 343-83
8.
OECD; Guidelines 425. Acute oral toxicity .Environmental Health and Safety Monograph Series on Testing and Assessment. 2000; 24
9.
Burckhardt RT, Batsakis JC. An interlaboratory comparison of serum total protein analysis. Am J Clin Pathol.1978; 70: 508-10
10.
Pierre NM, Demackerl A, Marja H, Helga TD, Henk B. Precipitation methods for high density lipoprotein cholesterol measurement compared and final evaluation under routine operating conditions of a method with low sample to reagent ratio. Clin Chem .1997; 43:663-8
11.
Me Gown MW, Artiss JD, Strand berg DR, Zak B. A peroxidase coupled method for the calorimetric determination of serum triglycerides. Clin Chem.1983; 29: 538- 42
12.
Jorns A, Munday R, Tiedge M, Lenzen S. The comparative toxicity of alloxan, N-alkyl alloxan and ninhydrin to the isolated pancreatic islets in vitro. J Endocrinol.1997; 155: 283-93
13.
Szkudelski T. The mechanism of alloxan and streptozotocin action in the beta cells of the rat pancreas. Physiol Res.2001; 50: 537-46
14.
Ayber MJ, Riera AN, Grau A, Sanchhez SS. The hypoglycaemic effect of the water extract of Smallanthus soncitolius leaves in normal and diabetic rats .J Ethnopharmacol.2001; 74: 125-32
15.
Davis SN, Granner DK. Insulin, oral agents and the pharmacology of the endocrine pancreas. Goodman and Gillman’s The Pharmacoogical Basis of Therapeutics. Ed; Hardman JG, Limbard LE, Gillman AG.New York.Mc Graw Hill Co. Incorp.2001; 1679-1714
16.
Garg A. Management of dyslipidemia in IDDM patients .Diabetic Care. 1994; 17: 224- 34
17.
Goldberg IJ. Clinical review 124. Diabetic dyslipidemia; Causes and consequences . J Clin Endocrinol Metab.2001; 86: 965-971
18.
Gaamoussi F, Israili Z, Lyoussi B. The hypoglycaemic and the hypolipidaemic effects of an aqueous extract of Chamaerops humilis leaves in obese , hyperglycaemic and hypolipidaemic Meriones shawi rats. Pak J Pharm Sci.April 2010;23(2): 212-9
19.
Satyanarayana K, Mangathayaru V, Shreekanth J, Venkateshwaralu V, Kokate CK. Studies on the hypoglycaemic and the cardio tonic effects of the roots of Cocclus hirsutus. J Pharmaceutical Sci.2001; 63: 30-5

DOI and Others

JCDR/2011/1660

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • Embase
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)
  • www.omnimedicalsearch.com