Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Dr Archana Dambal

"Journal of clinical and diagnostic research is a welcome change in publishing practices. It aims to reach out to the grass-root level researchers who do not lack in experience, clinical material and ideas, but lack in their knowledge in English language and statistics. The journal achieves it's aim by supporting in these exact domains.
It also gives due credit to all research designs like descriptive and qualitative studies while many journals ignore these important study designs. The rigorous review process does not allow any compromise in quality
It is indexed in many indexing agencies and the articles are available under creative commons licence free of cost
The frequency of publication supports many aspiring authors from India and other countries.
It's wide scope welcomes articles across various specialities in medicine. In an era when there is an unscientific insistence on speciality specific research by regulatory bodies in medical education, JCDR supports collaborative research across specialities. I wish the publisher all the best in his future endeavors."



Dr. Archana Dambal
Department of General Medicine,
Belgaum Institute of Medical Sciences,Belgaum, Karnataka,INDIA,
On 30 Nov 2018




Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri

"The Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) has been in operation since almost a decade. It has contributed a huge number of peer reviewed articles, across a spectrum of medical disciplines, to the medical literature.
Its wide based indexing and open access publications attracts many authors as well as readers
For authors, the manuscripts can be uploaded online through an easily navigable portal, on other hand, reviewers appreciate the systematic handling of all manuscripts. The way JCDR has emerged as an effective medium for publishing wide array of observations in Indian context, I wish the editorial team success in their endeavour"



Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri
Faculty, Pediatric Medicine
Super Speciality Paediatric Hospital and Post Graduate Teaching Institute, Noida
On Sep 2018




Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"



Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dematolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018




Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."



Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018




Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."



Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."



Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2011 | Month : November | Volume : 5 | Issue : 7 | Page : 1363 - 1366

Study of Multidrug Resistant (MDR) Isolates in Patients with Ventilator Associated Pneumonia in a Rural Hospital

Kotgire Santosh A, Tankhiwale Nilima

1. Assistant professor Deptt of Microbiology Dr. Ulhas Patil Medical College Jalgaon,Maharashtra. 2. Professor and Head, Deptt of Microbiology Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences University Sawangi(M) Wardha, Maharashtra, India.

Correspondence Address :
Santosh Kotgire
Assistant professor
Deptt of Microbiology
Dr.Ulhas Patil Medical College
Jalgaon,Maharashtra.
Phone: +919922867658
E-mail: santosh_kots2001@yahoo.com

Abstract

Background and Objective: The identification of microorganisms which cause ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is important for formulating appropriate therapies. In this study, we have reported the incidence of VAP and the prevalence of multidrug resistant (MDR) microorganisms from patients who were diagnosed with VAP in our medical-surgical intensive care unit during the period from August 07 to May 08.

Material and Methods: Patients who were on mechanical ventilation for more than 48hrs and in whom ventilator associated pneumonia was suspected, when a new and persistent pulmonary infiltrate appeared on the chest radiograph and who had at-least two of the following criteriae, were included in the study: 1. Fever ≥38˚C or hypothermia ≤36˚C 2. WBC count ≥ 10000mm3 or ≤ 4000 mm3 and 3. Purulent tracheal secretion.

Results: The incidence of VAP in our hospital setting was found to be 45% and the most frequently isolated pathogens were Pseudomonas spp, Staphylococcus aureus and members of the family, Enterobacteriacae. Of the 73 isolates which were studied, 36 were found to be MDR .

Conclusion: In conclusion, the incidence of VAP and the prevalence of multidrug resistant microorganisms were quite high in our ICU setup. A local surveillance program at each centre is essential, as the knowledge of local resistant patterns is vital for selecting the appropriate agents for treating infections.

Keywords

Multidrug resistant, Mechanical ventilation, Pneumonia

How to cite this article :

Kotgire Santosh A, Tankhiwale Nilima. STUDY OF MULTIDRUG RESISTANT (MDR) ISOLATES IN PATIENTS WITH VENTILATOR ASSOCIATED PNEUMONIA IN A RURAL HOSPITAL. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research [serial online] 2011 November [cited: 2019 Aug 22 ]; 5:1363-1366. Available from
http://www.jcdr.net/back_issues.asp?issn=0973-709x&year=2011&month=November&volume=5&issue=7&page=1363-1366&id=1691

Introduction
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is an important form of hospital acquired pneumonia and it refers to the pneumonia which develops in mechanically ventilated patients for more than 48 hrs after tracheal intubation or tracheostomy (1),(2).

Ventilator associated pneumonia is the most common nosocomial infection which affects patients in the intensive care units (ICUs)(3).

There is an increasing trend of multiple drug resistant (MDR) isolates in the ICU setup, which considerably increases the morbidity, mortality and the days of mechanical ventilation among the hospitalized patients (4),(5),(6).

The incidence of multi-resistant strains which cause VAP may vary from hospital to hospital, among the types of ICU patients, with antibiotic use and among different patient populations and comorbid conditions (3),(4).

The MDR isolates which are present in the ICU and in the hospital environment pose not only therapeutic problems, but also serious concerns for infection control management (5),(6). A local surveillance program is essential at each centre, as the knowledge of local resistant patterns is vital for selecting appropriate agents for treating infections.

So, the present study was undertaken to assess the incidence of the MDR isolates in the patients who developed VAP in our settings.

Material and Methods

A total of 85 patients who were admitted to the ICU of the Medicine and Surgery departments were evaluated over a period from August 07 to May 08.

Selection of the Patient
The patients who were selected for the study were those who were on mechanical ventilation for more than 48hrs with suspected ventilator associated pneumonia, when a new and persistent pulmonary infiltrate appeared on the chest radiograph and had at least two of the following criteriae (3),(4),(5):

1. Fever ≥38˚C or hypothermia ≤36˚C 2. WBC count ≥ 10000mm3 or ≤ 4000 mm3 3. Purulent tracheal secretion.

Collection of the Endotracheal Aspirate (ETA)
From patients who fulfilled the above criteriae, ETA was collected by using a Romson’s mucus extractor and it was immediately transported to the Department of Microbiology for further processing.

For a definitive diagnosis of VAP, in this study, the quantitative culture threshold was considered as 105cfu/ml (7),(8),(9),(10).

Antibiotic sensitivity testing was carried out on Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA) plates by the Kirby Bauer’s method. • MRSA were confirmed by using cefoxitin and oxacillin discs (11). • Suspected ESBLs were identified by the double disk synergy test, by using ceftazidime and the ceftazidime and clavulanic acid combination (11). See (Table/Fig 1). • Suspected AmpC β-lactamases were screened by checking for a decreased sensitivity to the ceftazidime and the cefoxitin discs (12). • MβL producers were identified by the Imipenem-EDTA disc method (13),(14). See (Table/Fig 2).

VAP pathogens such as Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter spp., and enteric Gram-negative bacilli who expressed ESBL, AmpC β-lactamases or MBL, MRSA and multidrug-resistant S. pneumoniae (who were resistant to penicillin and at least two other antibiotic classes) were defined as “multi-drug resistant”(MDR) pathogens (6),(9).

Results

A total 85 patients were evaluated in the period from August 07 to May 08. The quantitative culture results (≥105 CFU/ml ) for pathogenic organisms which caused VAP were significant in 39 (45%) patients. Forty six (55%) patients were not considered to have VAP, as the quantitative cultures of the ETA showed a colony count of <105 CFU/ml and they were considered as commensals or colonization.

The infection was polymicrobial in 22(56.41%) cases and monomicrobial in 17(43.58%) cases, while 19(48.71%) were early onset (≤ 5days) and 20(51.28%) were late onset (≥5days) infections. (Table/Fig 3) shows the characteristics of the VAP patients. The various underlying conditions are shown in [Table/Fig-4 and 5].

The most common organisms which were isolated were Pseudomonas aeruginosa [20(27.02%)], followed by Staphylococcus aureus [15(20.27%)], E.coli [13 (17.56%)], Klebsiella pneumoniae [12(16.25%)], Acinetobacter spp [5(6.66%)], Streptococcus pneumoniae [3 (5.12%)], H.influenzae [2 (2.56%)] and Citrobacter spp [2(2.56%)] (Table/Fig 6).

Of the 20 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, 3(1.5%) were MβL and 4(2%) were AmpC β-lactamases producing strains. All the MβL strains were sensitive to azetronem, polymyxin B, colistin and piperacillin-tazobactam and all theAmpC β-lactamases were sensitive to imipenem, meropenem and piperacillin-tazobactam, but they were resistant to azetronam. Of the remaining 13 isolates,6 (46.13%) were resistant to amikacin, 10 (76.92%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 7(53.84%) were resistant to gentamicin, 11(84.61%) were resistant to ceftazidime, 6 (46.13%) showed resistance to azetronam and 3 (23.07%) were resistant to piperacillintazobactem.

Of the 15 Staphylococcus aureus strains, 8(53.33%) were MRSA and all the MRSA strains were resistant to penicillin and erythromycin, while 100% sensitivity was shown to vancomycin and linezolid. Of the remaining 12 isolates, 10 (83.33%) were resistant to erythromycin, 9 (75%) to ampicillin and 5 (41.66%) to amikacin .

Of the 13 E.coli strains, 6(46.13%) were ESBL and 4(30.76%) were AmpC β-lactamase producers.

Of the 12 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains, 4 were (33.33%) ESBL and 4(33.33%) were AmpC β-lactamase producers. All the strains of E.coli and K.pneumoniae were sensitive to imipenem meropenem and piperacillin-tazobactam, while the remaining isolates were sensitive to gentamicin, amikacin, ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime also.

Of the 5 Acinetobacter spp, 2(40%) were AmpC β-lactamase producers and they were sensitive to imipenem and meropenem, while no MβL producers were seen . The remaining isolates were sensitive to gentamicin, amikacin, ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime.

Of the total 36 MDR isolates, 24 organisms were from late onset VAP, while 12 MDR isolates were from early onset VAP. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the dominant organism in both the forms of VAP.

Discussion

VAP, a form of hospital acquired pneumonia is a serious infection with a high mortality rate and in the literature, the overall incidence of VAP in ICUs ranges from 10-70% (3),(4),(6),(13),(16).

The pathogens which are responsible for VAP vary, depending on the duration of the mechanical ventilation, prior antibiotic exposure and the length of stay in the hospital. P.aeruginosa, MRSA, Acinetobacter, E.coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are the most dominant organisms (5),(6). In many studies, it has been shown that the MDR pathogens were mostly associated with late onset VAP than with early onset VAP (15),(16).

While considering the epicenters of bacterial resistance, ICUs were found to be the main sources of the upsurges in the numbers of MDR. Among the risk factors, the one that has been emphasized is antimicrobial agent abuse, which exerts a selective pressure on certain groups of microorganisms, thus turning them resistant. In addition, the routine use of invasive techniques as well as ICU overcrowding and the increased susceptibility in this population of patients who usually suffer from severe illnesses, further increase the risk of infection with multidrug resistant microorganisms [3,5,6].

There is high antibiotic resistance in nosocomial, gram negative pathogens which are isolated from ICUs, which are mostly resistant to ceftazidime, ciproflaxcin, gentamicin and amikacin. Though most of the gram negative organisms show susceptibility to carbepenem, the resistance to imipenem is on a rise, all over the world, by means of metallo B-lactamase production (14),(15),(16). Our study also showed a gram negative dominance, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Ecoli being the commonest pathogens.

In the present study, the incidence of VAP was found to be 45% and the most common organisms which were isolated were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, followed by Staphylococcus aureus, with (49.31%) the isolates being MDR. The higher incidence of VAP and MDR in our study could be attributed to the presence of co-morbid conditions. Some of the patients were seriously illwith conditions such as organophosphorous(OP) poisoning, road traffic accidents, acute mycocardial infarction, etc. The health seeking behaviour of our patients was different from that which was found in the developed world. Due to limited resources, the patients seek medical help only when it is absolutely inevitable. By the time the patient is referred to the tertiary care centre, his underlying condition becomes well advanced and it may become irreversible. This may necessitate a longer duration of mechanical ventilation which is directly proportional to the development of VAP and subsequently the MDR pathogens.

Potential MDR was a real threat to our ICU and hospital settings and the maximum number of MDR isolates were obtained from patients who had a late onset VAP and who had a history of previous antibiotic exposure, a longer duration of mechanical ventilation and underlying diseases.

So, in conclusion, the potential MDR in ICU and hospital settings emphasizes the judicious use of antimicrobial therapy, so as to decrease the incidence of VAP and the overall morbidity, mortality and the longer stay of patients in the hospital.

Lastly, the combined approaches of rotational antibiotic therapy and educational programs may be beneficial in fighting against such types of pathogens.

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Heyland D K., Cook D J., Griffith L, Keenan S P. , Brun-Buisson C. The attributable morbidity and mortality of ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;159:1249-56.
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Reimer L G, Carroll K C.. Role of the microbiology laboratory in the diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections. Clin Infect Dis 1998;26: 742–48.
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